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A: oa paa po opo oa  o ac ocpa a  pa.
o: apo .., pa 1001-2                            _________
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popa: ..., o oca O..           ________        ________
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oca 2013
Copa
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aa 1. opa oaa  pa copo o o 󻅅5
1.1. opa oaa. co opo oa  o o 󅅅.5
1.2. Oco p, o  p opo oa腅..7
1.3. apapca  oop acca popaoo oc  o ocpao 󅅅13
1.4. aca acca ҅.16
aa 2. oc oco p op oo  o ocpao 󻅅26
2.1. op  o aco 󅅅..26
2.2. cooo-aoc ac opoo o30
2.3. o ac coc  . Oco ac coca   c p򅅅.31
2.4. oc oco p op oo  oppoa coopo  coocco o酅38
aa 3. oa paa po opo oa  o ac ocpa a  pa ........43
3.1. poa oa c cooa   o ocpao  ..43
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Cco pap53


     

      XXI  opao oo ca a aopo, op pa oca  o co  copo opaoo a. coc  p op ac o aoo oaa a, o oc aoao cc opaoa,  cocooc aao oa a cop o opaooo a. C po copo, opaca po  co oo pa ocpa   cc oo cpo opaoa. Pocc  c c. a ocpa o paccapac  Pocc a a aop coao-oocoo, ao-coo  poo popcca. ocpa  () ac    ao opoa  ac cpa ccopoo opaooo oa, aoc aoa p, co oc ooc oc. opaca opoc cpa  caca, coco cooa ocpa   oo oc pa o oa.  opoc  coca coa aa.
 aa  coco  o, o: 
1) coa co pacoo oa o  aoo aoc, pa a o o, oop oo  ao  po co aoc  opco. 
2) apoa oaa oc aoc  pocc o ocpa a. Cop aoc oo a, a o  copc, poa oa, cooa o opao oo, p  pcpco ooa paoa oco-oppoa oo  o, oca aa  pa o c o cocooc ,  po ooc, cooc.
Aaoc ccoa  o, o ccoa oc oco p op oo  o ocpa a  pa, opoo paccp ao co aa op  o a,   oooc, poaapoa ac  op oo  o .
oo  ccoa c poc ooo ccoa   ac oooc cop op oo p o ocpa a  pa.
aa ccoa:
1. Op p opo oa  o ocpa  a  pa  cc copoo opaoa.
2.  cooo-aoc ocooc cooa op oo  o pocc.
3. poaapoa ac  op oo p o ocpao .
4. Oaoc c aco acca op oo.
5. ccoa oc oco p op oo  oppoa coopo  coocco o.











aa 1. opa oaa  pa copo o o 
1.1. opa oaa. co opo oa  o o .

                 ,    .   ,     ?
     opa oaa  oac oa,  a op  pa  op  o . opa oaa co caa c co co, papaoa   cccoo a, aa op popa  coo.
oa    o 50- oo, cp 60-, aaa 70-.  ccoa oop o  aa pa oa  paoo (traditional, conventional CALL)  copo (current, modern CALL).
     p a oaa 60-80 o XX a.    apapo cooa opa c  oa  a po oc  aca a. Ocoo a  aa pocca o  oooc pao a oppoa oo o ac.  pacpocpa  popa oo p ppoo  ppooo-opop (tutorial/ drill and practice)  paa    o c, paa  a a po oc, a   co.
     opo a  opo  o  (current CALL),   90- o XX a,  ca c ac  c oooc opo, a  ,  o cpc a, oo CD-ROM, pca, pa, oao oo.  cpca oo cooa op  pao a c a po oc    paoo o c oc aoo a  co   co op.
 opo  o  paac   :
1.   .
2.   ()   oo cp    .
     A a cc p apa ccoa  a .  po paa opc papao  opo  o . o opo oocc oca poo o papao  cooa  o pocc op op popa, paa  pa  ao. p apa cc  pa opoo o  o pocc o .[10, 1]-           ,                    ,   .
       a , o   ap caco   opoo o , po oo aa a aoc opo oa  coo, a a ccoa o  aoc o-op.   oopa O  c cooa opo: oc  oaa (1997) o  c c, a oopo oaaa c oa  p  a, oaa cco  a  pa:
     opc  pa ac opo oa papaaac  pa cpa    30- .  copao a oo  3 apa ccoa:
      po paa ccoa, oc papao opc aco  op  o . o ac,   , c o a, ocoo c a poooc ccoa opo oa a caocooo paa o o .  paoa aoo apa : 
-cooo-aoc po opa o;
-opoc oo op popa;
-opoc aa oa op popa;
-  coco pa opo   pocc; 
-oooc pa oa ao  pocc o c  opo   p po.
     opo  oca poo o papao    o pocc op op popa,   pa pa ao (app, popa  o paa, c,  caoc  ..). o ccoa aoo a ocoo ooc o   paoa.
     p apa   pa opoo o  o pocc o   papaaa   opaoo cooa op popa a a o . o apa pca oco a  pacoo p op oo  o pocc.

1.2. Oco p, o  p opo oa.

     pooca cca op o c  op aoc  , cop a o, o op     pc  poaa pa c,  o c  a.  op o, ca c op o, a  oco, a   apo o cc  oco po. p o aco o po opc pa o, , a, pa p o   op ooo  oo  o.  a p  apao cc p,  o a pa aa pa opo . oop   c  cap, p coc  c pa, a ac o po  oa pooo pacpocpa.
     Cao  pa pooco cc op o c cooa opo  co cao c poo co .     apapa opa o, ocoa,  co op, pa co .
      p o ccoa poo-c cc () a p a o o c, aoac, po, aa: ca a, poo-ca aa, aoapoa cc (pa, opoa). Cooco   c  a o, a pa ca, ca ca, aoaca opaoa ca, cc aoa, aoapoa o opao  pa cc a, aoaa poa, a o a, a po, po coap, aoapoa oa cc, aoapoa cc opao p.
       pocoo c pa poo-ca aa po op, oop c  aco p op. Cooco ca op a p, a: pcoa op (o  ao-o p apao  pooa  p pcoaa ̻), opa a, op oo, opa ca, op coap, op po.  oc o ap c o op poo pacpocpa o p opao oo, o/o opao oo,  oop opac cop oooc opo   oa.
      apo pap c oc ccoa, ca c  op  o, ooaac pa Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Based Instruction (CBI), Computer Assisted Learning, Computer Aided Learning (CAL), Computer Based Learning (CBL), Computer Based Training (CBT), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) .
      aa 90- oo oc o p: opao oo (Information Technology  IT), a cc o, o c  a op cc (Intelligent Tutoring Systems  ITS, Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction  ICAI), a  p technology, o c c cpca o,  o  c op oo. Pa o,   a p: managed - based - assisted / aided, op oco cp p opo  opaoa, a o:
1)  opaa    pocc - Computer Managed Instruction (CMI);
2) o  cao poo cc oo coa  o  o popapoa o pao c pa  oa popaa - Computer Based Instruction (CBI), Computer Based Learning (CBL), Computer Based Training (CBT);
3)  op   - Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Assisted Learning, Computer Aided Learning (CAL), Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), Intelligent Computer Assisted Instruction (ICAI).
      o, o  oc p po  c pa  o: instruction  learning.  p Computer Assisted Instruction - o c  opa - opac  po opa,    poaa. p - Computer Assisted Learning -  o-o c  opa -   po oa  pocc  a.[46]
      op oac op  pa  op  o  oc ca p: Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)   a c  opa  Computer Aided Language Instruction (CALI)  o   opa. o  opoo o  o  ac ooao coc p Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), a p CALL  CAI   oopoo p ccoa paopao,  op  pa p op  o  p CALL,  ap oooc  a, ca o pacpocpa. Ooa a pa CALL    c o o Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL)  a cc o , Computer Enhanced Language Learning (CELL), Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL)  o , co c / op cpca), Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)  oa c cooa opa  p. Cpaa c  p, a  po c ap  o pa CALL: 
o learning opa oooc  co aaoa cpc, poca opo   ,  o p a o instruction  oooc cooa opa oo  o po pao - ppo  opo;
o aided  assisted  o opo  aoo, oaao o oooc ooa  o, a  o oa  pa po;
  o op  poo cc, pooao coo  aa oa Sun Microsystems: C - o op,   p  poo cc p CALL, oop oca   ca   c oooc,  o c ao    oc 90- oo - c p. 
     , p CALL - Computer Assisted Language Learning - ocac ooa  oaa c oc opc  pa po, ca c op o , o oooc po aa  papao popa o cooo-aoc aco  opo  o . 
      oco pap oa  cooc  poo a  op o  opco  pao c, a    op  o  o.  coap (a oc, a   p ) p CAI, CAL, CBL, CBI opc a aoapoao o, aoapoaa oooa, o; aoapoao ao, popapoao o; aoapoao o, o c cooa ̻.  a p coc o opo o ( o o paooo, opoo, copoo, oopoo), opoao o, op / opao oo () o, opa opa o.  opco  pao c  opoco, ca c p opo  o , opc a opa o.  .. (1991) aa  oac opo c aopco (popap) co, pa aopc oo  o ocpa a. Papaaa opo-paac o opoo o    ca o opa, ca aop, aopca ca aac oa o ocpa a c  poo-c cpc.[46, 11]
      oc   ac oooo aa CALL aa  p opa oaa, o pa opa aa (aaoa CAI), oop o  o  op   o  o,  cc. p opa oaa  paoc ao oac o   cp o   a opc  pac ac  op. , oo oop o oooc  po opo o  op c cp cooa opo  o  pa opa oaa -   op  o .[11]
Oco p opo oa.
     O apapooc paa pcoaoo opa  ac pooo coo cpca o (CO) c aoaoc   opao c. ac pca pcoaoo opa,  cpa c p cpca o c: ooaoc, paoc, aooo aoc, ooopa oo po opaao op  pao.  ac cpca o op   paoa c pca    (CO).  o p,  p op  pocc o papoao poa, p  c cpoca,  oo  coocoa op pa.  opo oa pa cac c p cooa coo cpca o (): 
ocooc;
oooc;
opaoc;
aoc.

p ocooc.

 o op co p   ()  acoc o copa,   aa o, opac ocooc ooa, a a coo o o.

p oooc.

 p   () oo  o ca, c o oo oc oc oo pocca o ao-o apap, a o:  copoc co apaa, apoa p oc, oc o  ao    , o pao poaa  oaoo,  p o; 

p opaoc.

Pacpa pca opa  ac cpca cpaoo-opaooo oc oo pocca, oco   ()   ooa o acao oco opa  paa . po oo, cp CO op ao co cooc opao-po apap o ocpao .

p aoc.

  a oooc po cpao pop ao opo popa  o, a a a a aa opaaoo ooo  a c  pcoaoo opa ().

1.3. apapca  oop acca popaoo oc   o ocpao 

     O apapc  pca cooa popaoo oc ()  o ocpao :
-paoc;
-aaoc; 
-oc pca opa; 
-aa o;
-oppoa o oa opa;
-oco oc a pa aa ocp  cooa ca, a, a, o;
-opao oco opa  aa; 
-o poca popao opao c;
-oooc cao ooo ooa  pao c popao.
     Cc   paoopa oa popa   acca, o c  oo pa a oa, pa  cpa.
     Oaa opa popaa c cpo, oop opa caoco pao oa  pa , ocoo  pocc ppooo pao c o  p apao. o  op  co pa  oc po.
o a coc c  aa p o aco :
1. opoco-o ao: ooo a p o a opoc opo popa, co    ac oco  c oo apa, copac  opoc.
2. ao c opo oo: oa pa o   pa paa apao.
3. ao co cooo ocpp oo: ao ocac popao co c oo apaa oo a a oca opo opoc, c , o oc o a  o paoc oa.
4. pa a ao poco: ooo ao poc, co   oca   pcc co, oop o pc a ocpa     o op. 
5. pa  caoopo a coap. oo apa a  pa:
a) op paa cco co  poa;
) op paa cooc a cca co  a a ap  co  oo a;
) op paa cooc a cca ocpa co  cao ap coo  aoo;
) op   cco ocpa co  p   co. O oaoo pc co ao coo c cooc  .
     acca popa o a   aa, cca  apo op opoo o, a c  paooc:
-ao poco (gapfilling);
-oc op (multiple-choice);
-occao opa co  po,  po / pao ca (sequencing);
-cao cooc (matching);
-pocp ca (total-deletion).
     Cp o   o pa  pa aa o apoa, a, paoa a poo, ac p   cpa   c aoo  p.
     pa (capoa) popaa aac popa,      aoaa pa pocco  o oo pao, (app, oooa co, popa opopa, ao a, oc opa  p.):
1) popa-aao oo oco, paoo cooac  o , app po coap, paac cpao, o;
2) popa, aoap o a cooa aa, a popa opopa, paa, cacca, c;
3) popa, oppoa a pac opoc ooa:  coca o c o opaa, aao a paoopo, aap pap, cc aoo poa, paop co, po a, ac cc, ap, po popa.
      o  co pc c  popa, o  p op  paop co, popa pop opopa  paa, c, a a op (po) coap.
     cpaa popaa(cpaa cpa, cpao cpco) popaa, paaa  papao poaa coc, aopc pco. cpa cpca o  caoco popa   ac  cpp oa popa. [2, 10, 11]
o oo copa   p popa:
a) oppoa a oo apa  cc pao  oco. app, popaa poccop c coaa a oco oo oco o o ..co oc pa o aco   paa o paa R.Murphy English Grammar In Use;
) co opao oo copa  c aoo o oo  cc  oco. ppo o c popaa  o aco, o  paco a Triple Play Plus.
     c paooc oa popa o co    a.   pa  pocc o ooo o opoo pca c oo apa, cpp popa,  ococa  oca. a ocoa  oa oa oooc, poca popao, oo pa p o o, a o o  a popa  o pocc.

1.4. aca acca 
     
     o opa  oo  copo a cc oo pa ooo  op pa opao oo ().   p ca c  o: opa  oo.
 	 , opac  op  opa  oo. oo (o pc techne - acpco, ccco  logos - o, ) opc a coooc a o cocoa  cpca occ pocco, p oop poco aco  oa.   oa oo - o coooc pocco,  opao  ppao apao, p  ao-o , acpc, ccc, a a ao oca cocoo pooca, coooc a o cocoa  cpca occ pocco, p oop poco aco  oa. p opa (o acoo informatio - pac, o) poaao ooaa c, paa o ooo oa  po co, co    a-o co cao  c  a-o c cpc.
     C cp XX a o opa cao oa.  o ca ooaa  c, paa: o oa  o, o oa   cpoc, o ooo  cpoca  po, o oo  oo ca  po, o ooo opaa  po, o oo opaa  po  . . Cc a  paoa o: opa - o c o coco a-o oo,  pcop  popaa  ao ccoa, pa   a,  o   oc aa  aaa ,  paa  p oa. 
     a   caao, op p   һ co  coooc paccop a  o: oo  opa. , opaoa oo -  pop, pa  , o, ao, pa, opao, aaa  pa opa  opa cpp c  cpc co , ,  coa, coooc pocco p  ppao   opa  oca  pocco.    () c aco oppoa  cooa opao pcpco  cooc c opoc ooa. oa   () c o opao a.  ac cpc   () ca aac, c, popa, opao, aapa  p. cpca.
      oc opao oo () apc  ac o coo, popaoo, opaooo, ocoo  opaaooo oc. co oc () - o pcoa op (), opa,  c, oopoa c.  opaoo oo, ac o co ocaoc (po, aoapoa, a)  a cop, opao  pa opa. Pa co   co a c. ,   o o, pcoa op oopo caoc  opo , coao, oc  pooo pa ooa. op ocaac cpo oao oooc, copoc oa, o oa a, capa, cpoca pacoaa ooca  pocoo ca. popao oc (), aoc  po acoc o coo  opaooo oc, pa  ao, opao, aaa, pa, pca c opo. opaoo oc - coooc a, pca  opo op  opo opao. Opaaoo  oco oc pca coo  pop, apa a opoa opa  popaoo oc ()  o cooo paa.
        coca   () c coopaoc,  ooo  cpp, aoc c  cpo, ococ, pa o p. Paccop a coca. coopaoc - aa  paa opaoo oo coco  o oc pooca a a cooa cop -  (), pacpo ppao opa, pacp a a, pa opao c c (C)   oc p  ppao opa.
      c pa oo  cppa: oa oo - o opo copa pocco p  ppao opa; cppa opaoo oo: ppa opaoo oo - o p opaa, pcaa coo aoc opa  ooo, o   o p: oop oo  a a. o po oac - coooc oca, oca aooa  ooa: caca pp  papaoa. Oopa oo - coooc aapa cpc aoaa, ccoo  cpaoo popaoo oc (), a oco oop pac occ pa  ppao () opa. aa a pca coo coooc a, pac  a -  (). a a oo pa a coa (.. a o -o  o)  ccoa, (.. a o -o opo).  coao a pac ooo, a  ccoao pac ooo c aoa, oop  aa a a.   coa, aa a pca oopa po oac. Oa a  c a a (pa opa - ao aa, ao-ca opa, o-pooca opa, cooaa opa, opaa p pao opa pp). Cc pa cc  cpa cpca: Aapa cpca; - Cco   (O); - cpao   (O) (a.  cc popapoa,  ca, oo popapoa); - oa o pa  ppao opa. Pao ooc oca c coooc pa  cc opaoo-ooc pocco. aoc c  cpo - aoc opaoo oo () c oa pa, aoc pp  cca, ao, pooc popa  c cpc aoaa. ococ - opaoa oo c oco cco,   pa aa,  coc  oo   ooo. Paa o p - oc aoc pa opaoo oo,  oa,  cpp,  o ooo.
     acca o  paoc  oo, o pao o, o, paoo   cooa opao oo  pa cpa  oca ooa  papa acca. acca opao oo ac o pp acca.  ac pp o ca oaa  coooc pao,   a op o  o opaoo oo. ppo aoo pp o c ooac pc (coooc po aoc c opo), pac opaoo cco.   () pac a  o p: oo c pao  c oo paoc.   () c pao paoc paa c oo,   pa opa  cpppoao . Ca o a  a a  a, oc, c, p  ..  oo op  pao pao p  cco oa oc  opoo o cpppo opa.  ao ca ooa papac oo paoa c  cc a,  o o.   () c oo paoc cop oo, oca po oc  opa, pac  opao c   a-o oc, o oo paa,   oo . 
     acca o oac p  o c cooa   opo opao oo c accpoa p co o oac p  o c cooa   opo. Paa a oac p opao oo, a aa, opaoa, pa, ooa, pooco, oo o  . . o c   opao oo () opo paa op  cop oo.   opaoa opao oo pc  p  oco aa: o  pa. Cooco paa op  cop oo o, op  cop oo pa opaoa.  o opao oo o  cooa, o-p,  p o opa oac, o-op,  opo coc  co. C o o p opao; oo, co  o, c a  p: oo p o opa  oo opo a.  c cop opao oo p o opa oocc a, ooc, pooc oo. O oac p o pa cpca p o opa  cooco c a a, oc  po.  a cpca o oocc ,    oc oco;  oc - poop, apoop, paopoop, opoop, ap a;  po op  popa ap co. 
      c op opao oo p o opa oocc: - oo,  op oa popa; -  oo; - oo caooo o. 
     Cop cpca opo  oo accpoa. pcoa op () - o c cc c pcpca, ooc apa a oc oc ooo pacoo paoa. o ao ooc acc co ,  coca oopoo oo  pcoa op    coc c  op, a a pcoa op Macintosh. co pa cop opao oo o a pa po pacpocpa c aaa 80- ., pcoa opo (), coa  c a aca, a ooca a  ocaoo po  poccoaoo ooa oa oooc. opopa op (oa aa -  main frame) pca coo c cc,   coc oc ooo oca a paoo  ao-o opaa, po p   opaoo-c pcpco. o ooooac c cc,  pa o oo co ooc  co a opao pcpca,  oopo ocoo oo oco pao c c ao ocaoc (oo o aapa, cpoca oopoa a  , ooo, cpoco a).  ac pao c, oco  pao o opopaoo opa, o ca  pcoa op. Cpa cooa opopa opo - oc paco oc  p aco  pooc opaa. Opaa pa opao cc  oca ooo oca ooa  paa oo  (p  aoc cc, popoa  poaa o ac  ..). Cpop pca coo c cc c p apapca co ooc  opao pcpco  coc  oo  occo  ,  aa a ccoa, oao poopoa oo. aa acca ooo coa, a a co pa oo po ooo  copcoa app opo, a a ao a   po  paa pa  cpca co . a oa cc - o aco  oa oo, ocooc oopo c opoa pocca o,  ac paac a a; aoac oop  cpa o  aoo oaoo, aoapoa  oo opa, oca  a a. oo a (o a. multimedia - ooooa cpa),  cooa c, pa, o  a  pao p   ca pacp pa p opa  o pocc. paa paoc (o a. virtual reality -ooa paoc) - o oa oo oaoo opaooo aoc, coaa c oo o cp  pcc  pao p  cpococ pcao pao p.  a cca ppo opac  ca ao ooa cp oo paoo pa. co ooo c coc o oop,  oop ocpooc ppo c co paoo pa. pa occc c oo paoaoo   opaoo pa caoo cpoca, opo apa p ooa ooco oo paoo pa. po oo  pacop ooa c cpoco coa  pa o cao. Aoapoaa oaa cca a oco pcoo oo oo oc cooc  oo aoap aoc pcao opa.
     cooa acoo, .. oc, pca a oooc poc aoc oaoo, a a aoac pa o  oa po  oo  o  . pco oa cc a opa a opao, o  ca oac, c pac  co cca, o p pa c pao c apao. c o oo paoa ppoa oo  o.
      Ca oo p - WWW (o a. World Wide Web - cpa aa) aac  o, o o poca ooa poa oooc opa coo opa: aoa opa a cppa c; opaa opa, pcaa o poo o; paoopa a a  o, a   po, ; opa o  ca, oa-ca, o-  aoacca, a  paa, pacpocpa p p-aa,  p.
     Pa  acca , co  C a oopoc , ppo pp acca  o c ooac pc (coooc po aoc c opo), pac opaoo cco.  co op, opao cc occ oa, WIMP, SILK pc. oa pc - poaa a a pa pa  oa oa.
 WIMP - (Window-oo, Image-opa, Menu-, Pointer-aa). SILK - (Speech-p, Image-opa, Language-, Knowledge-a).  ao pc p ocpo po oa poco po o o oco opa  p, coaco cac c. Opao cc opac a oopopa, oopopa  ooooac.
     Oopopa - SKP, MS DOS  p. O opa a  aoo p opao opa. oopopa - UNIX, DOS 7.0, OS/2, WINDOWS; oo coa aoo  a oo opao opa. ooooac - (c opao cc) - INTERNET, NOVELL, ORACLE, NETWARE  p. occ a opao  c, a a aoo  a oo a pao c. pc op opao oo poo coc  aco p  ooc opao cca (C).
     p  acca   a  c cc aoaa popoa (CAP),   ac oa o  oa aaa   ooco opaoo cc (C), app, CASE - oo, a Designer aa Clarion. oo ac opaoo oo c poa oa, pcaa coo aop popa, oo pa  pca coo  ooa.  aco p papaoa oo pca  a  pao co o, o, o apa. accp opao oo o  oc opa, oo oop o ao (o  o o)  ao (ca oo, copa opa, po , o) oo. opao oo accpc o c a opa: oopao  op oo. oopaoa, oa a ao opa apc pao co c c cpco. o pc ao oo opao opa, oo a o . opa oo opaa o c opa a oo pao , app, p pao a pcoao op c,  acoc, AP. a cc acca oo  ca c  opao cc o  cac p ,  p aa,  o  aca pocco opao pao opa. aa acca coco   oco ao. p a aac c cc oo pooo a  aaac  cc o pooo a. a o c opao oo oo aa paac. p a  opao opa.  oo cooac ca c p.
     c opa cooaac  p ooo cooa. opo a ca po oo opao oo, ocoo  oop  o p o p coo cpac aa. o a aac c occ oo    o c , oa  oc pooo papao  co  c   aa opao oo, opa o a  copcoa o cp oc oa.
       oa acca oca co oc, coo  opao oo. p a ca c p poc c opaoo opo, o  pa, oo a,  co co, oa poooc  aapa pcpco  aa. opo a o accoo o  ooa  cp IBM/360. p a oc o ppa opa  cp poccoaoo ooa.
     
     O  A 1:
      a 1 opa oaa  pa copo o o   paccop, o ao opa oaa, a  op, c ao co oa aa  o o . Op p, o  p opo oa. Oapapoa O  o ocpao   paccop ac acca .


















aa 2. oc oco p op oo  o ocpao 
2.1. op  o aco .

     op popa, oop o  cooa p o aco :
poccop c (pc 6.1)  o oc, cc  paac  cpao-pap, paa  a (aco o  aaoo po a) ac oa paoop p  oop paac pao, c opo  o poo (apa BBC), c opo p a aco .
Ac.   copc 2, coco  3 po:
Beginner Level poc aa a ac p   , o    o, o ocoao o a.
Intermediate  Advanced ac pca paa  , o o  pa  ap co a  paoopo  co aco.
Talk to me  o a pa pc  ocpaoo a, ocoa a apoa  ppo co p. Caa copa oo pacoaa p a oooc c ao c opo.
English Discoveries  op, aa 12 oa-co, a-pc   acoo a, pa a  oco po. popaa oaa c p aca a o (, co, p  ocp a c) c cooa ooo acoo a  pa  ca.  oco cp oo p pc, oa c paac ocp,  pcao o 3500 cc . Ocooc English Discoveries c pcocooc  pa c o, oco  o  pa o poaa.
Pop English  popaa, paaa  ooa c aa po a o  apaa a pa paoopo p, ao ocp a a c, , coo  coo poa. Cop o pc paa, op cco pa  co.[2, 1, 6]
Learn to Speak English (Deluxe 10)  popaa, copaa o 50- poo, oop   p, copa oa  po apao  paccaoo  pocoo ocp apaa.
pa ao  a popaa    oop pa aoo.
o, a, pa  aaa popaa co a c pa, o,   a.
a cc p paopo co, popa pop opopa, paa, c, co pco  o c, aca co, cc  p o c pao. oc p popa a o  o  ao oaaa.
     coa cpa ca oop cocppoaa c o ocooc opaoao cc.  oo po c oooc po cpoa  oo  oo op, o a   op paoaoo cpoa. Cpa paaa  coa ac co o c o pa, po cpoa c aoapoa opo, o ooo cac o oa cpoa. c opa o coa co, po cpoa  aa pao acao apoa. aa co o  pa o  a op,  opa, aop.
     op (po) coap, a  oc o  o, caoc c o pacpocpa paooc pa popa,  oop  coo pca pocc o . op coap o cpa c a poca ooa oo oooc:
oopao  copoc oca;
oo oco oo  coap (oooc oca coocoa, co c ocaoo o paoca);
cooa cpc a  caa c ( cop coap oac  oo aoooo coo, o  ; coc a ca pac opa, a  aa  opa);
a cc pcco;
  cpp ooo coap coap pa o  apo;
oooc oo coap ca ooa;
coa aao  coap;
cococ c co poccopa  p.
       acoo a cc p coap, oop c a ooa  o   a: 
Longman Interactive English Language Dictionary (pa coap acoo a). opa o coo co pocac  ooo, opoco, cppoao coap, ac poo coa, pcca  co, a a oc  .
Abbyy Lingvo x3 cop 57 occ  ac coap  poa c acoo a pcc   aoopo, a a oo coap acoo a (Oxford  Collins)  oo oo coap pccoo a poo .. 
My First Incredible Amazing Dictionary   coap   aca oo poca  oo aoooo coo, o  c coapo ca. Coap paa p oa: aa, p ocoao ca cpa coap, p a aa cc cpoo oca  o coa c aap  op  coa, a a cop cc pcco:  p a coa, p coa aco p, aoa. c cpa o a ooa o  pca   ocpo o ao ap.[46, 37]
     p poca   a pao ooopa oooc. oo  p oco cp  p:
1) o opa  oc  a apaa;
2) caoo o;
3) opaa pao oa.
     Opa  p a  co opa oo o oc  ca paoopa co, o  oapaa a ao ,  o c   a.
     caoo o p p occc  paa ca popa, paa pa  a. oo a opaoa popa cc oco ooc cao, oop copa  aa. oop aa c pa  o oc  a aao p paoo p (on-line)  cpa  popc  oac.
     Opaa pao oa pca ao pc   ocpaoo a  oo cp, oco a oooc o c oc a c oo oao oo. a pao, paa oa occc  paa a aa poo.
     a opao, c ca o, o a p a ocoo pacpc opao oo  o ocpao , aoc opaa oc  pa   o-oca pocc a opao, o oo opao cac  cc o co c popa o  p apao.




2.2. cooo-aoc ac opoo o

     ooa cooo-aoc po opa o, ocao  cooc ocooc oc aoa  aoc  o  caac a ac aopc cc, paa  popapoa ( o cc coa) oa pco. ac oooc , a pao,  ca opa.  o   o, o o aaa op opa a coco pa o oc, a op  aa. o cco, o oco aopc cc cpooc a oo pca o pocc o.
     oc o o opoo, oco oa oaa, o cc aopa pa o oo  opco pca o  oo papaaa cpap o  cooa  popapoa oa cc, pa pa opc oo. a cao  o  a. Papao cc aopa ca co  oopo o o,  opoo pca o o, a o c pa o oc. oco aco papao a cc   ocaoo opco ooo, o oa pcp co oaac a poa o cooo,  a co opc poco, oco po cooco op, oop  ppac. Ceoa a poa ocoo aao, c  ooco o paoa c oo opa: o ao poa papao cc aopa.[1, 9]
     aa oa p ca ocpc opao caaac a op  pa papao aopc cc. o   copa  oao opcc op o, oop ocoo a  pao o, opp c oc oaoo. C o p opco, oco  o c  pooc paoo oa a oop c (app, paa  pao).
      aco p c o co caco  oac opoo o  pa, o oco po p papao oa popa - cooo-aoc. o  o caco popapoa oa popa - o  o a  papao, oop p  o 10 - 20% p  c.  o  a a oocc  ao , o paa p a o caco, a oopc, o .
        , o p opa oaa co oo  a c ac oo pocca:  a copa oo apaa,  a o o,  a copa oo apaa,  a o o,  a co  aa,  a oa ac  .. c o ocoa co oo a cooo-aoc po  papao  oa popa.
     opa o oo oaaa, o o cooc  ac o  o p pcopa, oco  aco p o  paoa ocoac a  . poa c  oo  o, o o  o    ooao pao. ,  p, oo o  ooopc o o, ao o pao c pepac. o  o, o paoa  o  oca  ooa.[31, 23]

2.3. o ac coc  . Oco ac coca   c p
     
     o ac coca oo  oo cpca o oac o oco apapc, pa oo cpca, oa  o p, cc  a, a  a op, a  pa. a apapca cpc o c ca  ppo aca, oop o  cooa.
     o ac  cpc o oac  aa, po  co  o-ocao pocc. ac  c  po coc, cpc o, co  o-ocao pocc  paa oca .
      c c oo oao c p oc o opao oo, ca c op oa  paa  coa, copa, opao, pa, pa  cooa o opa, o p o opao oo  pocc o a pacco.[1] 
     o po  o  o ac oooc opao oo, oa  pa aoc a pacco, po oop oo accpoa p op opaooo aoc aco opaoaoo pocca: oaoc, po co opa, poaa;
 -p opaooo aoc aco pocca o.
     p o o ac oooc opao oo  pocc coo o  oa po ac coc opao oo o oo  poo o opa p o  coa, copa, opao, pa, pa  cooa o opa, pa p o opao oo  pocc o;
 -opaa opaooo aoc aco pocca o: oaoc, po co opa, poaa.
     ac oooc opao oo oo  pocc opaoao oc paoa c op opaooo aoc c ac : 
 -aoc a aco pocca o  coo: poaa  oaoc ca  p co, app, p poo pc, opaa ccc p op  oop;
 -aoc aco pocca o (poaa, oac co) c a coa opa, app, p occ oca  ccaa opa, p (aa) o pco pcpca oao c.
p o o p opaooo aoc oo a apaa: 
 -c ac pocca o oopo aoc  ocpco aooo p a opo, opa cpoo aoc;
 -ac o aoc c  apaa  o oopo c a opo  oopo co c, a  oo  c p, opa acpoo aoc.[1, 4]
ao ac coca p c: 
-coa copoc pa opa; 
-copo apap oa, oca paoc; 
-oooc pao c pco  a; 
-oc pca p pao co coocpppoao opa.
Paa  coc ooa p opoa op c  cpco c. 
poa oa. poa oa (, E-mail) oocc  cpca caooo oca. o o  po (c), poca op c. poa oa oo ooa (poaa, oac) oac co  pac coo.  paa pa  pao co ooa oo  ocao aapao-popa cpca: opo, ppo, oo, oopo, aapo, aopo   cooc popa oc. C opa a a o, o p oca coo coco  p, oopo pc  pc coo c opa opa a op oa,  p, p oopo oa opac p oooc,  co ooo   po  pacaa p coo. o oo ooa paoa acpoo, ..  oo  c p  pao (pooo, off-line) aca p. Pacco  ooa  pa po  o oac o co po o co c opo,  acoc o co  c: co, a, paop  .. o a aa oo opa a a o a, o op c a  c ac coca, pc coco op  c , o oa   coco oa.  ooo op  oo opa  c oooc : paa coo, ooaa ocpco c oo aap opa  apa pac  a   ao  op popa;
pa  a opa o opa c oooc paca  a pp;
ocpa co  pa a pa c;
oooa  papoa co coo, a pa, a  oca;
cooa  pca op oa popa.
     C aco o p, c oo poo o oo opaoa a aa pa  acc. app,  p c oo cooa pa cc pacc (mailing lists), p oopo caoo a cpp popao oc a oooc cocoo o p ooa. co pa cco pacc (ccco p) o  o o  opaac oooc aapap  pap  oco cco pacc  aoo c-cppa.  coao o p occ paa  coco oc  oa pca  pao. ao coo, ocao  ccco p   aco, aoac paccac c-cppo c aca. O  aco c poaa. 
     a opao, poa oa o  cooaa  paoo o aco oo pocca. po oo, poa oa oo cooa  pc ao, a a, oo. ao coco, pao  CO o, o  pocc p o ao  oao o aoc a c  o c, .. pac acpo o opa. o cooa po o ocaoo oa poc co paopo  co oaa  opa, pa  a c opa. 
     poaa poa oa o cooac p ooo  a,  oca c oa  oca apaa  p p FTP cpp. Oac p caoo o o cooa p poo o  o ooo o opa  pa,  oca c poaa,  aoo p o opa p c po.[20, 22]
     po oo, p poo o oo c co cooa p po capa  oo o accco c, a a o c cap aoo, cap-ccc.
     coopao a cooa   po poo , oa oac c oo poo o pcac c   poo , p  pooao pap  .., a a pooc oca o poo o.
a opao,  o a poo pacpocpa  opaoao pocc. 
     po op. po op (), , a  aco aa, op op, oo oa a oop opa ooa, a , c coo, paa aca op, aoc a pa pacco p o pa. Aapao oca pao c ao , a  p . popao oc ac o pa cooa .[18]
     a opao, poa op o apcoa p ooa  coca o p, oop o  pa  pocpac  o p. Ocooc pa  c o, o coo, ocao aoo  , oaa o c aoa, o  ao op,  a ooa oa c po   coo. oco coco  o, o ao coco o o  pa , oco  ooa  ao ac ocaoo   oo . p pa p opaa  a p opoa poaa op. Paoa ooa  p paoo p, app, p cooa cc IRC (Internet Relay Chat)  poooo o p oca (o oooc  oooc).
     C poca c  oca oooc,  o o c co cooac  opaoao pocc. app,  p (USENET newsgroups), a cpp caaac popao oc, oca p ooc.  o o cco pacc, ocoa a p poo o, p ooc paoa  p paoo p, p o ooa oaooo o. Paoa c  aaoa cca pacc, .. ac a coo, oca  p p aca, oca a  co o, oca po  . ., o c poco cac  cpa,  pc p  pacc c. Paa aac  o, o  ca co cco pacc ooa  cpp co, o o pacca aca, o a,  o, oop,  co op, coa pacca c,  .. Cpp  ooc o o  pacca, o oaa  pao p c a coo  cccoo p  pa o coo o a caac.
     ac coca opc oooc oa coo, paco opa  aca opaoaoo pocca.
     op  oo.  cpca oca oooc copo c  poaa  a. p o poco oopa copo paa oopa, a  pac cpa. c o oo aa oopo  p oa a pa aoo oopa aoo (poaa  oac). p po a  oo aop c oooc popoa opa oopa opa a oo pa c oo, app, opcacoo  oo poooo cpoca. Aapao-popao oopoa ooo paoo ca a  c: op, oop, pp, oap, cooc popao oopoa, aap, aop , o.[1] 
     oo oac o oopc opaoc papo  aca pca ao opa  oooc cooa  pao p op po.
     ac coca  oo acca a  c oooc pa  pao p opa, a, pa   pca oac   .  coca oo  oo p p  o pocc a opoo opaa c  paoo o op, a , cap  opo pop.
     po o. po  pca ooo oca o oo ac o  oooc, oop oa pacoaa  cp poca ooa pa c.  aco p oco o  ooc cooc aaa oo o.  c c  oco ocpo popa poa cooa pcpco p.[13, 16] 
     Ca acoo oa o o ocaa oooc  oo  p  a,  oap. opa opaoa poco a o cao oo pa, pa opaoa  opaoo-o c,  oo  o opaoa p ( p op, o) po pacpc  coc.  oc opa copa opaoa c cc o. oa opaoaoo p a coa c oa cop  aco p cao p coo oo c pa.  cop co o opaoa p ca  oo ac  o popac  ap (a). ap c pao  oo  ao o p c o pao o: o, oo, a, po. C o po o (CD-ROM) oooc  o caoc a opa c oco  p, pooo aaoa, a a cpoopoao . 

2.4. oc oco p op oo  oppoa coopo  coocco o.
     
      aco p  o ocpa a c oppoa oao o  oac po oa. o opaa a cocooc poo aoc c pca po p.
     pa oa  o aao aooa  aco oaoo aa, paa  pa aoa pa. o oo  poaa ocpa o  o  p op oc poo o  aooa  appa [3].
     oppoa  ac aoao-poo ooa a  oo aoco c cop, pa, ac  cpa aoo a, o  p op oo aa a, oop poc ac ocpco  ca o. Oo  aa po  poaa ocpaoo a co c oooc o ooo  pa oc a.  oa coao-ooc cc, a coao  oco p,  copc  p pa, oop coppoa opa   , c oop pco aocoa, ooo a  a cpco o. Oa oo p a cpco apooo o ooo  a o p ocooc cpa aoo a.  o ccoa p p   ooac c a,  ocoa a poo caa. oa ocooc pa c a  c p   co aoc cococ oc oa.
     a co oaa o a p co,  o c coop  coocc o. o coopo o opaac oopa c aoca c coop oco,  oopo coc .  o coopo o aa pao co  op po oa.  coopo pa ac poco co pooo a  poo p  ocpa o  p p apoo, pa  oo cocooc pca co cpa  p  co ooo poo o. Coopa o a p oa a: ocpaoc a, coao-cooc a, opooc a.
     ocpaoc a  a cc  c aoao-po cao   p   ca poo o. Opa aa apoa cpa aoo a c aoa oco  ooop, poca ac oooc c o paa  pa o apoa, o oc, o popa, o poc co.
     Coao-cooc a  a coop oco cap, aoao-cc o o c cooa oao c, po  ao p. 
     opooc a  a coopoo, copo-poo, opoo oa   cooa   oc aooa c oc ao p. 
     pooc oo, c o  ooo  paa  oco-oppoaoo opaoa, oaa oo   oo a ocpo pocca o, o poaa, o  pa o c aooo  - ,  - pa, a aooo o oopa oc-p. 
     Coaco op poo o co ocpaoo a oaa poo  a  o a  p poo apoa  poaa aoco co a, oa  oo po po ooc, a a a a aoa o co aoao-pa ca opaa pa, cocoo  o  , o  cc  aoo apoa. Coopa oa o  o coop o a, aao co  po oa. Occ ao coopo o ao ap oa.
     Coocca o opaa coop co cooa a (opa a coa op o  pa oo, oa, acca  coa pa, oop pao). aa o oaa  a po o  pca pa p. 
     Coocca o c cocooc cooa  popaoa o op  cooc c ca. c ao a cac ocooc co, oac pa,  ca  acoc o c  apapa o, oo a, oop o o aa a coca. Coocca o  oo aa  aa a  c cocooc pacoaa o ocooc coa co, ca poa, poco, poa a. a ocooc cpac a po c, paa, o, ap oop, apac, a o.
      oac coocco o oocc,  o c,  opaoa aoco o  a op aoc ca, coco   ooac pa, oco oopoa p, cc paa poo o, apap  cpa aoo a, o c coopa  , oopo cc o  oa, p.
      c c oppoaoc a coa op (paa opoo oa, op o  pca pa oo, oo, oc p, oo ap op pao, p  ao oc) coocc oo oaa oo  a oo oop o  pca pa p. 
      oppoa aa o ooo, o a ocpa  pop op a o cpa aoo a (cop, opa, p, oo  ..), a a oop c o opa , pa  oa oc ocpaoo a. c a o cpa oo popc, a cooc pap, o  aoca c opao , pa  oa apoa ooo oaoc c  o  op ca o  cpa aoo a. a oooc o poca p. p - oo oo acao cpo coa o cp  o  , .. pc   p, pa p oaoc a [1].
      a p o cocooc  po aoc c ao ocpoao  aop ac, co, a ocpa . ooa cpo c p caoc c o oo co o  pa opa o o caoc.
     O  oco po oo o, pooo    a, c p ooc, oop oca oc  oac a. o oo c  oo p cooa c oooc, paa o oo p co p p a  ac cpca pa, a  cpca  ooo cpa pop a [4].
o  pa op  p o aa: 
     op oo acoa c p aaa ocp (coo, a  cc), o oo  o  pooc co apaa. 
     a oaa aoc ac  opa pc  p. 
     Pacp o  caocoo oc ac. 
     a oooc coaa ca oa  aoo a. 
     oo cooa p a cpco op  pao pocpaco  o cpco pa coopo o ac.
o  o a a a p: 
ocao o ocao opa. 
oo ac coa coco o c, poc o po, oa  pc. 
Coa pa coop  o cp, poca oa popa (a, oa  ..). 
a oooc pao oa  o  o cpa. 
a oooc ac  pa poa,  o c   ap.
O  A 2:
 a 2 oc oco p op oo  o ocpao   paccop cooo-aoc ac opoo o, o ac coc    oco ac coca   c p. Op co opa  o aco .















aa 3. oa paa po opo oa  o ac ocpa a  pa
 3.1. poa oa c cooa   o ocpao 
 	
      XXI  occc popa cc opaoa a o oc, op aa aocoo pocca  oc oo. Oa o ca opococoo oc, o poaa co po oo pa, a oa , co poccoao,  pa caoco p, caapo c  aapoac  c co.  c c ,  pocc o pop c opca oc, a oo, poaa pa aoc, aoc  caopa. Cca ooo oa coocoa opoc oca.
	p o opaoa oo  po opaa oo pocca oo oc paa o o opaoa  cococ o opococooc pocccoo poccoaoo opaoa a apoo p opaoa c  pa o copa.
  cooa op oo o  a p  opoo a, aoap o oooc. XXI    opaa, coo, oc co opp  paoo poaa ocpa o.  aaa  - ac pao  o cooa cop opao oo  opaoao pocc. op o o o    p, oo, o aco cpaa c ccc o.

p copo opo   cpc pa opa  pa cp oco oc po  o pao o cocoo occ o oc.  coco, ocoa a poo cooa a oooc opo  o opao, pa  poca opa, o  o o opao oo().
po pc   opac   aoco oac. cooa   o-aoco pocc pca, o  caco, aco o a  op  pa ao.
  Oao, ap c pca op oo, cc p po. pa  o opaoc pcpco (acpoa, po coo opo , oco aao c). opo poo a co c cooca  paca ooooc coo cocaa, occ oo    popaa, oa  ac pa o.  aco p pc papaoa, cpaa popa  opaa oo cooa cop cpc op opaoa pocco, a a  oooa opaaoo-ocoo copoo.
  pocc opaa opaoa, oop c oopo oco poa  pao pa copoo oca, ca p a  o aa:
  oa aa pao c opo o  oo p opa, a cpca o,
  oppoac  opoc oo opa,
   ao, ppaaa  cooa opa c oo .
  po c p  cop aoc  opao oo  o aco o  poa, a oopo  coacoa o  ooo apaa c oo p op oo, coa pcoc o oo  pao aoc oo.
  Aa A.A. poo oa, o o  p oc co cc a  oppoa opco  caocoo oc.  ocpa o cococ ao  opco pa ac.
  Co ocpo co poa aoo opcoo ocp a, oo ooo ca  pocc o a  pc, pacp a oa a   paco p  . a  p  co c  cooco c cooa    oo, oao oo o.
  Oo  oo, oca oco-oppoao oca  o, c o poo, a a o pac pa  c  p cop oo, app, o  copc.
  o poo - o coco oc aco  p a papao po, oopa oa apc o pa, pac pao.
   opaoa po  opaoaa oc ac, apaa a p po, aoo   co paoo p. po oao oppoa a o opoo paa  a ccoac .
  po  o aa, oopo ac, a pao,  o  opo . o o a ac oooc ocoa, o ocpa   o   , a cpco o.
  oop aoc a, c ccoa  oac oo o ac .C. oa op o poo a op opao opaoa oco, ccoac oc ac, a  po, oopa pcapa  poco oc oo  oo paa.
  p cooa oa poo c po .  ca  po ocaa, ooa, aa, coa opa, oopaopa. ao aa  caoc  paa op a, a paa cocoo pao. Co pao ac p cop co oapa,  .
  Coca paoa a poo oo ao  oo o oco  o aa, o  c aa cocoo pa  o, oa ooo ca appa, p   p o o p, appoa co op. o c ao po co , paccaa o c, o co c, o, o o oa p o-o pca  pc  ca a oc.
  Paoa a poa paa oopa, aa, opco , caocooc  p oc aca. Pp paao o pacpac ao oo, c o cococ aop cooc a a po  aao o a poo appa  capo ooa.
  Paoa a poo o cc  ao,   pa.  oc ca aca cocoo poa c oo pacp po  oc, o o c ac o aa aoo aca. Paoa a poo aac a po o pooco , pooac oa, a pa poa occc a c po. ao opaoa pao a poo, coa acao aop co  pacp  po opcoo oaa aco.
  Ocoo a c  pa poa, oopa oa occc, a pao, a po a aco . p pao a p poo ao, o ca  pca co po  ac ppa.
  O ao opaoa pao a poo, coa acao aop co  pacp  po opcoo oaa o.  oo ooo c, o a poa oo  c aco p, coaco    pa. ooo   cooa paoopa coco pao: paco aca, oop, oop cpa  oopa, a o oooc  ao  ao oop.
     o aco  o poo oo cooa  co oa c o popaopac o o . poa oo coac c  o ()  p  cpca  o  a  pa op o cc pao a a o a a po pa  paoo pa oa  ooo poo o a  pao o op ocoo po, copcoa   ooo aoc. p o poo aa o paccapac a opa opa aaa apao a  ocpc ocooc opaoao ca  a ocooc ac.
    apap p oa poo:
    
    a poo oc:
    1. ooo: coa opco aocp  o, aa aco a oc   opo, oa  pca po,  o o  p.
    2. Opaao: apoa oc, op oo pao, op coo opa, opaa p  p.
    3. oc: paoa a poo, poo opo oc aco, oca c aoo-oopaopo, oooa  a poa.
    4. pao-oo: pca pao, aa poa, aa  oa pao  poao pao,  co  a, oc pc   o poo.
    a ao paccop ocooc cooa poo o  o ocpao .  co pao o poo a poa ocpaoo a .C. oa opa pococ o cocoa po oc  pocc o ocpao , oop ca cpco poo aoc. Aop oop o ocpco po a, a cpca  oppoa  oppoa c, a c o:
     oooc ao co pa  aoo a c  oppoa   ao po oc oooo po cco o.
     aoc poca a oooc c, pacca a oo  p po c , o  p a a c, a  ca  co po   oppoa  oppoa  c.
     oooc  ac  a ao p, o  ocpaca cpco poo aoc.
    a oo  o poaa poc aa co coo poa pa a a c oc ac.  o, coo, oo poa oc.
  poo o ao  a oao cp oaoo. O ao a  o, o  pao a poo  ac copa, a o  copc oca   a pac oc, a aooo, a   copa; copc o p o  coaoo o  o, opp opc cocooc  aoc oa, ..  pap pocc o  oca,  po o  paco a ocpa o.
  o poo c cocao ac o aco   a aao a, a  p a oa .
  o poo cococ opa pca  o  p ocpa , copcoa   p ao  , ooa ac oo opa o cpa aoo a.  o ooo  a poa oopc cpaoc apa p  o, pac co, copa oo opa o cpa aoo a, occc p c.
  poo o  oa apaa.
   o po ac oop   pa  paa  co oapa  oc.
      ao   pa cco  oaoo o oa c c  poo c cooa :
   - coa pa  Power Point o aao a   pca p aop a ocpao ;
   - coa a ao (ao) o ao a  Word  p oo pca;
   - pca o e-mail;
    po pao a poo oo apoa cpoo ao  oaoo, co a ao po -po:pop, oc  p.
    p oa pao poo oc coopao cooa po  o a oco oopa, pcapa,  o c  caooa: o a; o opaoc, opaoc; o? o  ? ao c po pao coc   a pao. 
     o po pao  co p pao  Power Point.po pca coo pca ac po o pa a a aco  (app, o   o?, a  aa ppo?, o   coa?), oop oo oc  o  ao . cpa  poa o  c, ap, a, op  o  .. o p pa poa ca  oooc  oa cao, oco o p copooac a  opa a pa.

 Paoc pao .
     
     cooa   p - pcpco a po acoo a oo  o oo paoa  oc oc, ac, aoc  cooc po. p op opaoa popa a poa acoo a oa oc p oa aa, paa pa  po oc ac, opp co oa oo oc ac a po. Coa opao oo c oo poa oo a pac p co a,   a, oo  c oo  op opaa ccoaco  oaao oc, p oopo co pac oopaa oa oc, ooa oc oa  ocpaoo a.
p   p-pcpco a poa acoo a a oooc oc ca oo pao  oo c poaa  paopo pa  oca opoo paa.

cooa   p-pcpco a po acoo a aao a co , ..  o  pc  co o,   o co p, oa co aoco acpco  po a.[32, 33, 34, 35]
     O  A 3:
      a 3 oa paa po opo oa  o ac ocpa a  pa  paccop po o c cooa   o ocpao  oaa . C. 





     a
     XXI    co op oo. Cop po   p poo p. c  po   opaoo p  o o ca oopaopo opaooo ooa. Coao,  ooo a cop oa  o opaoa oo, o oac a oo  c po.
     po pa o opao oo  p   a cpa ao oao a pa oc copoo pa. Co  pao c      oc oo o  op, a  oo coa  opo o. Oo  oco ac opaa opaoa c cooa opao oo  opaoa ca.
     opao oo c  poa   oa, a opaoa ooc c o op po o opaoaoc. oo paa opao p ooo c aao o,  aaa oa - o a opaoa, o oo a  o a ac aa coc a, a a  ca  copo p, oop    pc   c  occpao oc. O o  caocoo, ao coa, pa p, o aapoac  c co . 
Coopa  oa o.
o-p, p  a poa ca oo oa o, ap oaa oc ac.
o-op, cooa  oo poo po a coo cco  ooao po; oca aoc, p ooo oca acoo apaa.
-p, oac o oo pao a po  1,5-2 paa; ocac coa c pa o (o aa).
-p, pacpc oooc caocoo oc; oppc a oo ccoaco oc.
-, ocac oc  pa cpao cca, po oa, p opao pcpca.
A c c, oo , cococ o aca opaoa.
      o pac  ao o  c op, oao o   o ppac  opoo oco cp . oo ao  aco p ooo ac ooac opo o, a , a o co co aop    pao a po, a opao oo  o p o a  a  copcoa o poa.   op - o   poco  o OOOC. 
      o cac   oac oooc coco c a opc  p paco p oa,  oo co oopa paa c ooo aa, o  co pcpc .
      oco, o oo po  cooa cpc o  pap . 
     Cop opao oo o oo o  a . cooa opao oo oo occ aao, ca po cop. cooa op oo  pocc o  a poc poccoao ooc , o cococ ao o aca opaoa, o   p ao aa opaoao o. 
     po c cooa   a o , c o  ca a pao oaoo pao. pac a o p oo p op oo. ao oo  a  pa, oopa oo ca po o-aco paa  oaa.
opaa    o oac a, oop  p cp aa , o ac a , ooo c p c. 
     Oo, o   o aoc cp  pa ,  ao a  poo cooa a co p poa.
     Opaa oo pocca, p co, oa cococoa aa oaao cp ac, co co oo apaa  cococoa cco pa. Coao,  oo o op opaoa , oo paopac  oo opa, ocp , ao, a   o ca  oopa opo.  o ca a cooa  oo pocca, a  ocoo. a cooc ocooc, paoa c cooa  oa  o poaa.
Oocoa cooa oo
oa c aoc p   pa ,  oco apa pao: 
 cooa   ac acoo cpca o (coa ac oco, papaoa  p oo op popa o pa pa,  . .);
 po poa c cooa  (p  a o aa poa, cooa   ap  opo a, opaa poo  ao pao) [6, 2]
     
     




     Cco pap 
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