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   CEPCO OPAOA  A PEC AAXCA
   APAAC OCAPCE EXEC EPCE
   
   
    622.112.3(574.3)                                                        a paax poc
   
   
   
   Aaea Apa Peoa
   
   
   XAPAEP PACPEEE OPO PO PAPAAAEX OX ACO 10  12 AX E . EAEA
   
   
   
   acepca ccepa a coca ao cee acpa o apae 
   6070600 eoo  paea ecopoe oex coaex
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   a pooe
   aa eo.-. a
   pea ..
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   apaaa 2014

   Coepae
   
   opae c
   4
   eee
   5
   1 eoo ecopoe
   7
   1.1 Oe cee o apaaco oo accee
   7
   1.2 pae cee o ecopoe
   9
   1.3  Cpapa
   9
   2 eoa
   12
   3  
   18
   4    
   26
   5 o opo po eocx aco cpee oc                        apaaco c
   
   36
   5.1Aepo  ap
   36
   5.2  eca
   36
   6 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po eocx aco  10, 12 cpee oc apaaco c
   
   39
   6.1 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po ooo aca 10   
   cpee oc apaaco c
   
   39
   6.2 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po ooo aca 12 cpee oc apaaco c
   
   41
   aee  
   43
     
   45
    1
   50
    2
   51
    3
   52
    4
   53
    5
   54
    6
   55
    7
   56
   
   
Aoa
   
   
   acep ccepaa  . eae aa? axac? ?apa?a cac? opa ca acc?   10,  12 ?p ?aaap a cap? aa?? opaac e? aa epe. 
   epe apca  . eae aa? axac? ?apa?a cac? opa ca acc?  10,  12 ?p ?aaap a cap? aa?? opaac apaap aca.
   ?p ?aaap apa ee a? ?pa?? apa ??eep oa oa?a, e . eae aa? axac? eoa? ?? eapaca ?apa?a cac? opa ca acc?   10,  12 ?p ?aaap a cap? aepa ?e cpapa? opaac epe a?ca?a ?o. Oc a?ca?a e ? apa ?cap? ?eep ?oa, aa? oa  a cap? ?aap? ?eep oa epo ?ee a a cap? ?e oe aca. Co?a aae ?p ?aaap? o? ?a??a e? ?ee a a cap? ?a? aa. 
   acep ?c? ?e e ?ae epe ?p ?aaap a a cap ac? e? e aa?? opaac a??ap a o aa. Aa ?o?a a?ca?a e ? e? ?a ?e epe ? ?p ?aaap a?a. a a cap? opaac apaap ??p ? axa aa?? epee eoa? ? a?a.        
   a a cap? opaac apaap ??p?aa e apaap eee, aae. 
           
   

   opae cc
   
    acoe poee cooa cc a cee caap:
   C P 1.5-2000 Oe peoa  ocpoe, oe, oopee  coepa caapo.
   C P 1.12-2000 oee opae ecoe. Oe peoa  ocpae, oe, oope  coepa.
   OC 2.106-96 EC. ecoe oe.
   OC 2.105-95 EC. Oe peoa  oe ocpopcx  exooecx oeo a eaax  paecx cpocax oa .
   OC 2.104-68 EC. Ocoe ac.
   OC 2.109-73 EC. Ocoe peoa  epea.
   OC 2.301-68 EC. opa.
   C CP.4.2.3-03.05-2003
   OC 2.304-81 EC. p epee.
   OC 2.316-68 EC. paa aecee a epeax ace. execx peoa  a.
   OC 2.503-90 EC. paa ece ee.
   OC 6.38-90 C. Ccea opaaoo-pacapeo oea. peoa  oope oeo. 
   OC 7.32-91. Ccea caapo opa, oeo  aeco e. 
   OC 8.417-81 C. E ecx e.
   OC 21.1101-92 CC. Ocoe peoa  paoe oea. peoae  oope oeo.
   OC 7.32-91 Ccea caapo o opa, oeo  aeco e.
   OC 8.417-81 C. E ecx e.
   OC 21.1101-92 CC. Ocoe peoa  paoe oea.
   OC 28.388-89 Ccea opao opa, oe a ax ocex ax. opo oe  opae.
   

   eee
   
          xapaep pacpeee opo po papaaaex ox aco 10  12 ax e . eaea.   . .              18  7.     3  -      .     8   -   .  2-3        - ,     .  ,        .
         -       , -       -     .
      ,             ,          papaaaex ox aco 10  12.
               ,          ,           .
           ,  , ,  ,  ,    .
           ,  , ,  ,  ,    .
    ,        ,   ,    (    ),       .
                . . ,          ,         ,     .
        .          ,   .
    .       -          ,               .     ,                         .
    .                       .
    .                ,         ,          . 
     :
   1.                  .
   2.   -    ,      ,    .
   3.                   .
   4.                  .
    .    cooa a ao oo a,     a o ooc oo  cao ocac o o o,   pacpeee opo po papaaaex ox aco 10  12 ax.  oaaoa  oca.
   


   1 eoo ecopoe	
   
   1.1  Oe cee o apaaco oo accee
   
   apaac o acce axc  apaaco oac    poo apae a 120 , p pe 30 . a oa accea cocae  3600 2,  x eoce ooe apoa cca ooo 2000 2.
   apaac o acce pacooe  cpee ac ccooo accea p. p, p axc  peeax p-axacoo oopaea. Pee paoa pecae coo oc pa, p ce eocooo, c ooce pee 30 .  eocoo pa  c a acax pacpocpaex   o-ocao opaoa eoa, coca opaee accea. epaa  ac accea xapaepe c pa eao  a pee.
   co eocoo pacpocpaec  apae   o accea,  paoe op aae (acoa coa o 815,1 ). a ocao eppop pa  eocoo c aco oea a opao o 500 o 600 , peo o 750 .
   apaac  acce  ppaec a cc  cca Cap-Apc eca.  pace  cpee ac c accea p. p, p axc  peeax p-axac paea. Pee paa xapaepec peec cec, a e  axc a ca ac p e-axac  paea. E ppae  pcx  ee e pee ea pa paa  e  ax e. Pee paa pecae  e c pa, p ce ec, e  cee pee 25-30 . ec pa  c a acax  px pacpcpae e  -cae paa ea, ccae paee accea. epa  ac accea  ca pa ea-a pee.
   ec cex  peea ee ec p-ea pcxe, p peec a c   ec.  e ec pecae c pee pae accea. 
    pec a pee  aca ppe  xc- . E xapaep ce pe, ae caee ep, pe, c paceee c. c ec ce  c  e-eex ae-aax pp pc paca. 
   pe ac apaac accea pecaea pa pee. Pa  eeec e ec p a, ae a,   eae, a-eae  ae. 
   c ec pacpcpaec   apae  accea c ac e  c  815,1 ,  pae p aae. a ce caec eppp paaec  ec  c c ac ea  500  600 , pe ca e   750 . 
    eca   ee ce c 100-25  pacpcpaee ae pe.  pa  peeax paa pe pae pcpaca a ceep, aa  c acx. a   -c ac  ec cc  ceep-aa pa p aae,pe pa a e  epacc p pe, ec c ac e-axac paea.  e e ae ac  e ca  eca cac c p c-xc epxc, pa pacceea  pea   e pea, a  aaa. Ace e, pecae a   ec, ec  peeax  520  710 . pec  ec  c epe ec a ec pax . x  cae  pc aee. 
   Pae pece  ec peea cee ee, eec cpee ex ac  e p cppac  ee aee - eep epa. 
   a paa caec a pe ea,  ca a pa c e ee  epa ac Epac aepa  e  ,    e xapaepa ppaec cec, cepe, e aec  px pcx e   ..
    Pea pa, pa ec a apepe paa, ece c e caa ac p  a  cax pe, aaec c ceepx c axa - pc paea. 
   cae pa x   ax cee, pe paee  cppac a e-aax ax c ae ace e a cax. aee p   ax p.pa  ee p,    ppe c aceex .  p paa ae ee  c c ce  aceec paa.
   apaac acce  cpp e ppe  aa ac e cp,   p apae.  e cpe pa ace p papa paca  pcxe. p  xapaep ep paa ec e paea ac a, cea paec ceep ac paa  ac aec caac,   pe a  paa xapaepac eca pe a pe ce epc a. [1]
   
   
   1.2 pae cee o ecopoe
   
   pao o oo eapae AO ca-ape 64 o 16.06.1998 oa axa . eaea  axa .50-e CCCP c 01.07.1998 oa acpao oee  o pooce e-ax . eaea.
   Oeee ax pecopeo a ae ax .50-e CCCP.
   oe ax . eaea eeo  epao ac ceepo-aaoo pa apaaco ca a ox acax 18  10  8-7. Ce c oe ax c ax Aacca, oca  a o-aae  xaoca  a ceepo-ocoe.
   epe oe ax poxo acapoaoe occe, coeee . apaa c opoa  ca: Capa, Aa, axc  oceo axa. o occe poxo eeoopoa ea, caa ax c p axa  ooae apa paoa.  epao ac aca axoc Capxaca ooaea apa,  o pa pacooe oceo Aac, p ao  apep oo aoa. a  o-ocoa ac o ax a cao aca oeoo caooca  ecoocaa.
   axa papaaae ac 18, 15 - 10  8-7.
   oepa ocox e ax apaec a eapece ao aaxcaa  oo paa, popo  a eoe epoca. opee pox  copox epeecx e c aaxca, pca, eca  aco Pocc.
   paa aca c: a ceepo-aae  xo ox aco o eooce ooe; a o-ocoe - opo -200 ; a o-aae - oe ax Aacca; a ceepo-ocoe  ocoe - oe ax xaoca.
   
   
   1.3  Cpapa
   
    eooeco cpoe  axa . eaea cea ooe apoooo, pcoo, eoeooo  eepoo opaco.
   apooe ooe pecae oc papeo apaaco c,  p  ooc ccae o 600    ac aapaaco c ooc p ec 350 . apaac c caa eca, aepo, ap  o ac o 1 o 20. apaaca ca xapaepec  ce epe epecaae ecao-cx opo  poaco  eooo ooc o 0,2 o 0,5 .
   oa e aca 6  7 caaec ecaa, aepoa  apa ooc 26-33 ;  e eec poco ap eo-eeoa  oo coc, c ooao cppo, pa ee appee aee.
   a aco 7 aeae o ac 8. a pa x paee eec  ceepo-ocoo apae o 0 o 10 , a ae 20 , o ocoeo paceee; oa ppea  ep epe   ecaa, a po  oa aco ce apa.
    ac papea appe ae  epe,  p ooc ccae 2-5   poe aca 8 .
   ac 9 pacooe e 8 a pacco o 15 o 24 . ooc paee o eaec  apae c o-aaa a ceepo-oco; caae ee opo pecae  ocoo ecaa, a aepo axoc oo  poe  oe aco.
   oa  30 e aca 9  10 coea cpeeepc, ce ecaa c aepooo ao. Ap  aepo peca po  o aco.
   e aca 10 aeae copoa epoa oa peeceo ceo-cepx cpeeepcx ecao, oea eo o aca 12 a ceepo-ocoe aca  o aca 11 a ocao oa, e  peae pacee  ac aca 12 popea caocoeoe aee  ecpec aco 11. ooc ecao e aca 12  11 oceeo opacae  apae pacee c ceepo-ocoa a o-aa o 0 o 30 .
   oa oa opo e aca 12, oea eo aca 13, pecae  ocoo ecaa, caa  epx ac o; ap  aepo aea  oe  poe ox aco  pocoe 121  122, a ae  cpee ac papea.  apax po 12 coepc aa eeo opoa 3. ooc o o 110 o 90.[1]
   e aca 13- 14 aeae 25-epoa oa, pecaea oo-  eoepc ecaa co cao eeoa oeo; ap  aepo e oeoe pae; oo  o-ocoo ac oeaeo oa paea oa eaec o 10   ooc coea aepoa  apa
   e aca 14 pacooea o 45 o 55-epoa oa oo-  eoepcx ecao ooo cocaa eeoaoo ea, o ec app  papea c. eca oe ac 14 o p cex e coo aco 15-16-17 , aex  o 5 o 10-epoo oe apo.  p x ox aco oo ac 15 ee pao ooc.
   e aco 15-16-17 a pacco o 50 o 40  aeae epx pao ac apaaco c 18. Caaa oa pecaea ecaa, aepoa  apa.
   Paea oa e aca 18  19 pecaea  ocoo cpeeepc, ce ecaa; aepo  ap aea  cpee ac o, a ae  poe  oe aca.  apax po aca 18 o cea cpc a cex oca aepoa  eo c 181, ee appee aee  o ac papea.
   oa 80-epoo ooc epeeaxc ecao, aepoo  apo oee ac 19 o epxeo aca apaaco c 20;  ee coe peoaa eca cex oo po epcoc, aca paecx  ooepaox. Oeaec ae ox aco 191, 192, 193 eepao ooc. a aco 20 oa cpeaec aa oo opoa 4.
   a pao oepxoc eoco o apoa aea  paco-pce ooe. x ooc opacae c ceepo-aaa a o-oco o 300 . pecae o px  o ooepaa, pao epcoc ecaa, apa, aepoa  eco o ooc aca px e.[1]
   a ace pa 3 c: capaca, oca  cca.
   Capaca ca (T3r - J1sr.)  c pe o ecoace aeae a paoopacx ooex aeoo. xo a e oepxoc  peeax ceepoo pa apaaco a  e poo ooc, aaec  ocea aa  poceaec o ocea oa.
   Ca, coea peeceo cpee-  poae ooepaa cepoo  eeoao-cepoo ea, poepc ecaa  aepoa, e oopaoe aeae.
   ooc c oo paa o 30 o 140     paoe xaocoo poooo ecopoe, pacooeoo  epao ac apaaco a, ocae 230 .
   oca ca (J1db). Ooe oco c coaco aea a capaco ce, a  ecax, e oce occe, c o ecoace a opoax aeoocoo opaca.
   Coea oca ca eo-  cpeeepc ecaa, aepoa, apa, eo-  cpeeae ooepaa  aca px e. oeco e ocae 20.
    oco c xapaepo ococo ooecoo cocaa. a aeo oa ocaeo eppop peoe aeee ooepcx opo poooo pocxo  a o-aae  o-ocoe apaaco a  a ceepe epxe-Copco.
   ooc c opacae   o 120 o 190 .
   cca ca (J2m). aoee opo cco c aee aao opoo poo a ocaoaoe. Oa c pao  eo o ecoace aeae a ooex oco  capaco c, a  paoe acoo o, paeeo  ceepo ac accea apaac  epxe-Copc a,  a oex oax ccoo aca  a eocx aoex opaoax  a eoco apoe.  c, xapaepa pea aaa eoc. Coea oa  ocoo eo -  cpeeae ooepaa, ecaa, pee aepoa  apa c aoo oopa poco px e. ooc c o 30 o 250 .
   eoeoe ooe e e cooo pacpocpae, a aea oe a  oex acx peea  pecae ecpoe o   a ooc o 20 .
   eepe ooe pecaee ca, cec  eoepc eca ooc o 4,5, a aco - oo oeo-pace coe o 0,3  pa a ce oa o.[1]
   
   

   2 eoa
       
    eoeco ooe apaac o acce oeae cpee ac poo oo cop.  cppe epaoo aaxcaa  aae coeopaoe ooee,   pacoaa  coee oace aeoco  epco caaoc, e epco apo-axaco eoca a e  oo aeoco ocoa a ceepe.  
   apaac cop  co, o  ooceo e p poo opepoa ca cpp.  eoc aoeo-ocao opoa,     eoco cepe aeoooo opaca. 
   eec  pa-pc eoce pao pacooe   pa-pc ca. aae  pa aa ac apaacoo acce.  co accep, ac  ceep ca,    epoao apae. a aae oa opa eec paoo, o apaaco ca a ocoe oeec Aaacco aa. a ee 55 , pa  cpee ac 25 .  pa-pca ca    aoee o ca accea.       coxpac o paa ca o pape eoco o apoa. O xapaep cpoe o ca   c ca (c p p  oo oc aeae opo  epao ac), ocoe oee e paxca  paxaa caa.  eepo ooe ca ec   ,   eeca  oca ,   e coo p  pa-pc cpoco.    poxo oepea aca aa,   x o ooeo , oeae cao ceepo ooeoc ca.  peeax o ac  ca  eaee o paepa e-eca, apaoca  oaca .
   p pa-pco ca coe  po ca  apco  apaaco. a aao pe coxpac  aco,  oceeco cpea eec paoo. aeae opo  paoa poe. eca ae cea opooe, o coooe, e ooex cao  x ape. Ceepoe po pa-pco ca oaec aoee oo, o cec ooa aee opo (o o 25-30?  cpee eo ac  35-50?  ceepo-ocoo). poee pa  ocee cae ocoec ooce pap ape. [1]
   poee oo pa  pa-pco ca xapaepec acao cooc. a ce eo poe opo aco, apco  apaaco c copa  ee pooe aae  cae ca.   o oce ,   eo  poo  o  e apae. Paax pe  cao oeec  peeax 100-400 . a oe px cao oee oee ee, coa oppo x pe. eo oop o xapaep caaoc.  oo pa pa-pco ca xapaep ec ee  opoa cao a ceep. coee x ac poo papa peeceo pocooo xapaepa c oo ao epeee.    e p cao ooe, ceepe  oee pe. eoope  poco, epexo  a ea co paep  a. eo a aapc ao  oe po ca cpeao a oo poe. eec  aeoe oeco oee ex poe px papx ape.  cpc co epeoc opo  ox aco,        epa coe. ecoc coa oceeo eaec  ceepo apae: ca eac  cox paepax. oeco x ape peo copaaec. opo aapaaco c aea e aeo oee cooo.  
   ax e . eaea  cppo ooe pacooeo  aoo ac  a  o-ocoo pe apaaco ca.
    ooo, aoo ac , oca a po o-ocoo pe 75-80, ae ox aco ec o 0 o 20.
   poe aeae pacpocpaec o  290- 450  a cao epxe paoe ace 18,  a e  1 o  760-950 . ac oaac o 10-20, e x , a cpaeo opox epaax o ae,  opa ooo pe epexo o po  ooo ac o-ocooo pa apaaco ca.
   a ooo ac pa ee ooaoe aeae aco ca ocoeo ae ooo ooeo ca,   ceee oc  ceepo-aao apae.
   pa o ca 2,5 , apaee oc ca  a ceepo-aa.  aoo ac apaaco ca ooea aaa caa opae aa epe oc ca, coaa paxcaa cpp.[1]
   p c ao apeoc aeae ox aco ocoeo pap ape.
           .                .    .             . , -,      ,          .      ,            .
         , ,   ,     .         .        .      -     .       ,    .  ,           .      ,     ,   ,   , -  ,      ,   ,     .             .
       ,    .
   1.            -   .
   2.       .
   3.     .    .      .        .
              .
           ,        ,        , . .   -         . [1]
             .    -      .
        -       -   . . .    -   .      .
        ,     ,   10-25      ,      45.                 .
      -      .           .     300-600 ,  , .      .      ,    ,    -.  ,    -  ,          .   . .           . ,             ,    ,        ,    .
             . ,          ,     -  -  ,        .
               - ,             . 
                 .   , -,           (    ),  -,        .               .        ,       ,     .       .
                    ,     .
                  .            ,             .          .
    , ,   ,   ,     . ,      ,      ,    -    .
    ,           ,   ,      -         ,  ,                   .   , ,           .  ,            (  ,       ),          -,      .          .  ,               . ,    ,        ,    .  ,            - ,         - . 
       ,          , , ,            .  ,      .                  -   .
                      ,      .
    ,      ,         ,   ,        ,  .        . ,  ( ,   )         ,             .  (   )    - ,      . [5]
                    ,       ;            ; , -          .            ,      .
     (  )    ,    :          ,        ,            .    ,         .          ,    .       .
                   : 1)         2)       .
         , ,    ,  ,       ,          ,     .
             ,      ,     ,    (   ., 1960).      -    .
     ,  ,      ,    .  ,        ,               . ,                ,  ,                       ,     .
    ,             ,        ,                . [4]
   
   
   

   3  
   
                .         750 .    16   12 ,    8   ,  ,     ,    17-20,    .    7, 6.
   
             1.
   
    1 -       
   
    , 
      , 
   
   
   
   
   20
   2,20
   -
   82
   191
   0,39
   -
   31
   19
   0,9
   -
   18
   18
   2,15
   1,60
   18
   17-16
   5,0
   -
   10
   15
   1,7
   1,09-0,75
   48
   14
   1,33
   0,99
   22
   13
   4,20
   1,59
   9
   123
   0,62
   -
   20
   122
   0,57
   -
   53
   121
   0,58
   -
   28
   
    , 
      , 
   
   
   
   
   12
   5,40
   2,90
   27
   11
   1,30
   0,90
   38
   10
   5,0
   3,22
   14
   9
   1,0
   -
   6
   81
   0,5
   -
   53
   8-7
   3,7
   3,12
   2
   6
   1,5
   1,43-0,66
   37
   53
   3,4
   2,25-0,85
   44
   4
   3,2
   1,07
   47
   3
   3,56
   1,82
   2-3
   2
   4,50
   4,5
   60
   1
   4,30
   1,80
   -
   
    16   7    -13, 12, 10, 8-7, 53, 3, 2  9    20, 18, 17-16, 15, 14, 11, 6, 4, 1.
        ,    ,      -,    .
      ,  ,        ,  .
      , -,     -             .
       - 13, 12, 10, 8-7 ,       :    - .     : -    (13-6)   (12-8-7).
             .       8-7, 11, 12.       .      - ,     .
    14    18, 15, 14,  13, 12, 11, 10, 8-7, 6, 53, 4, 3, 2, 1 -     7 (18, 13, 12, 11, 8-7, 2),    18, 13, 10  . 
    12, 11    8-7 -   ,                 .
                .        ,      .   7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18.
    18, 13, 10    , 12, 11 7  ,  12,      -  . [8]
   
         ,   ,    2. 
   
   
   
   
   
    2 -      


    , 
   
   
    
   
   

   ..
   , 
   
   
   
   
   
   
   18
   
   100
   -
   -
   -
   15
   
   -
   -
   100
   -
   14
   
   -
   -
   100
   -
   13
   
   100
   -
   -
   -
   12
   
   90
   -
   -
   -
   10
   
   90
   -
   1
   -
   8-7
   
   100
   -
   -
   -
   6
   
   65
   25
   -
   -
   53
   
   -
   -
   -
   -
   4
   
   -
   -
   -
   -
   3
   -
   -
   -
   100
   44
   2
   -
   56
   -
   -
   111
   1
   -
   69
   -
   8
   30
   
    16, 14, 12 - ,    ,   .           .
        (12, I0)   .  18, 13, 7 -    ,  11 -  .
        ,     13, 10, 12   17           0,25.
     12, 11, 7    ,   .     2, 2, 10.    12, 10 -   2  10,    .      20,0  25,7%,     0.53  1.42% (),       14  24%,    8362  8803 /.
   Cee oe, o oa c aaaco aaca (aa 2) oc ocoo xapaep (6, 1, 4), a cee aca 9, aac oopoo ooc oece  aaaco o ooc.[9]
   Coocaee oo ox aco (epoe, apoae, pe)  o caa o pae 1971  1973 . (apo a ocoe)  o caa pex e pae (a ce)  pecac   oo epe a pe paccope  epe acoeo oea.
   e peea xapaepca oeaex ox aco.
   o ac 18 a oe ac oeaeo oa (70%) opaoa. ac ee cooe cpoee, o  e eo eec coa o cpoe  ooc paoa ac.
   Oa pecaea 1-2 (pee oee) aa cpaeo aoooo   ee ooc opa 1, 1-2,0 . oe a, aeae  oe paoe ac aca, e e oox ooce  oee o ocee opo poco, ooc oopx pa  pea ooc x ox ae.  poe aca aea oe poac 181  182, oeee o aca 18  p o pa poco apa ooc 0,7  1,0 .
   ac pa aca oee op paoa, e opaeoe pacpocpaee. aco paa ee o - e op.  opepoa  ceepo-aao apae. ac oocc  epa.
   o ac 12 cp 99 caa  oooe op paoa ax e . eaea. o ca o  epa  apaaco ce ac. Paoa ooc paec cooece eo oe ooc  oeec  peeax 7-8 .  coca paoe ooc e xo 1-2 oe (0,1  0,3 ) epxe oe a, oeee o paoe ac pocoe apa  coo apa ooc 0,1  0,3 . ooo eo ec a co,  coe pa o aec .
   paeo o  pecae epx co. Paoa ac co ooc 1,8  2,5  coco  2  6 ox ae, ocea ooc o oop oeec  peeax 1,45  2,74 . oe a paee o poco coo apa  apa ooc o 0,05, pee o 0,2 . acopeoc epxeo co  11 %.
     oco co aca, oe ooc 4,5  6,1 , oee o epxeo pocoe apa  cx opo ooc 0,05  0,20 , peo oee. O coep o 8-10 ox ae, paeex poco coo apa  apa ooc o 0,05 , pee 0,10  0,2 . o ocea ooc oeec  peeax 4,4  6,0 . acopeoc eo co eaea   3 %. aa coo apa  oe aca aeae ooc o 0,3 , peo oee.
   o ac 10  aao pa o ax ee aca o ooc 4,5  5,5   ooo eo ec a p co  epx, ocoo  .
    co o ocooo oee pocoe apa, ooc oopoo,  pao, peae oo ooc eo co.  co aca 10  ocoo apae oceeo oeec o ocoo ac aca, popeae caocoeoe aee  ecpe 10 .c.
   epx co oee o ocooo pocoe aco aeae caoc  c apa, ooc oopoo eec o 0,1 o 1,0 .  apae c aaa a oco epx co a cpaeo opoo pacco o pocpa aeaec c, caoc apa. o aeee xopoo poceeo op paoa ceo ax . . eaea.
   Ocoo co pecae pao ac aca  ee ooo epaoe cpoee  ooc a ce oa. Paoa ooc ocooo co coaae c eo oe ooc  oeec o 1,6 o 2,5 ,    c aaa a oco a ce oo, o epx oa aa ocooo co aeaec o e  c  caoc apa. Ocoo co aca pecae paee o (0,01  0,05 ) apo poco 3  5 aa . ocea ooc eo cocae 1,4  2,4 , acopee opoo  5%.
   o ac 9   o-ocoo ac o coe  aa  ooc 0,5  0,7 . aa, paee pocoe apa ooc 0,15  0,20 . oa ooc aca ec cocae 1,2  1,3 .  aao  ceepo-aao apae  aa oeec  aec, a ocao oa ac pecae oo epxe oo ao ooc 0,5  0,8 . oa coecoo aea x ae aa  cocae 5 %, oo oce aaco poee a ce oa ax oo o epxe oo ae. ac ee aaaco ooc o peoaae c aco epecee.[9]
   o ac 7 ec o  epax aco o cpoe  ooc. Oa eo ooc eec o 1,35 o 2,35 , paoa ooc o 1,0 o 2,01   ocea  o 1,0 o 2,01 . ac coe peeceo 2 o aa.  paee pocoe aopoaoo poao-cepoo aepoa,  app aee, ooc 0,05 . oe a eoao ooc  ooc. epx aa ooc o 1,2  cpeeoa, a  aa ooc o 0,05  xapaepc coepae o 25  35 %. oa  cpee ac aca cpeac oe oe poco apa.  oe aca,  pao, aea ce  caoce ap ooc 0,20  0,50 . oc paoa cex ax .. eaea, aca, Ceepa  caoe eoe o oa ace pa aca 7, pecaee  (10  40) ooca o 100  200 , oe ceepo-aao opepo. ooo, o -a ao p  poeoc ae pa caa e aac, xo    .
   o ac 6     eo e pao -   epao  epx ac.
   Paoa ac aca pecaea 2  3 o aa,  oopx  coea aoo co e, a epx  coo. po poco    ee oco ooc 0,03  0,05 . p ocee aaco ac  oo e ac aca, a epx  coooa  oce ooc e aac. ee o a peo   ee ooc pooo  ooaeoo   oecee aca  epec. epx epaoa ac aca oeea o paoe eo ac pocoe apa ooc 0,3  0,5   pecaea epeoae cooox ae   cx apo.  aao ac o caoeo paceee aca 6 a epx   co a ce ee ooc paex opo o 3 o 21 , o copooaec eee ooc eo co o aaacoo.
   o ac 4 ee eepae cpoee  ooc.  ace eo eec paoa ac  ooc  cpee 1,42   eaec  o-ocoo apae o aaacoo (0,8 ) a ce oo, o epx aa (0,15  0,35 ) caoc coooo   oce e aec. Paoa ac aca coco oo  1  3 ox ae, paeex o (0,01  0,06 , pee o 0,10) poco apa.  poe paoe ac aca aeae aa cooooo, oo co epaoaoo , o cx opo, oeea pocoe apa ooc 0,1  0,5 .    ca  oe aca ae ppoea aooa (0,1  0,4 ) aa ooo ,  cx opo, eca oeea pocoe apa o paoe ac (0,1  0,4 ). e  a oceeo ac  apae oe aca  a o-ocoe occ. acopeoc paoe ac aca eoa  4 %.
   o ac 3  oe ooc 3,5  4,5  oaec oe co cpoee.  e acaec o 12 ox ae,   poco apa, coo  caocoo apa.  ace ooo eo poceaec pexcoeoe cpoee. epx, o e pao co, ee ooc 1,0  1,2 , oce 0,89  1,18 . o poee pocoe    ex cax poc 1  2 ox opox poco o 0,1 . o epaoc ooc paoe ac aca ee oo oec  ooceo epa, oco ec ee acoepecee c aaacoo ooc.[8]
   Cpe   co aca oee o epxeo.   p o pa poco apa  caocoo apa,  ooc o 0,1 o 0,4 .
   Cpe co coep ooe oeco ecox opox pocoe ooc 0,1  0,2 ,  o ooc 10  1,2 .   pecae oo oo oo ao  ooc 0,6  0,9. a eooo acoo ooc  co e e poeoo ae.
   oee pace oaa, o p oee aca a o ooc  capo epxeo  cpeeo coe,  epoo apaa ooc acoa o oc epecee peae 35 %,  opoo  ooa epecee ee ooc oee 45 %.
   o ac 2 ee ooceo epa o ooc opa 4,5  6 ; cpoee eo oe cooe.  ace acaec o 15 ox ae. ooo eo eec a co.
   epx co aca ooc 3  4  oee o eo (1,5  2,0 ) pocoe apa ooc 0,1  0,3   ac epecaae cooooo  c c apo pepo ao e capo ooc. oe a eo co pecae,  pao, aaaco  eoo o ooc . Paoa ac aca oo ppoea  epxe co  coaae c ocee. Oa pecaea 4  7, pee oee, aa , paee poco o 0,05  0,15  apa  cx opo. ocea ooc aca oeec  peeax 3,1  3,8   o c. 15111 p.. 5 caec o 2,65  a ce aee epxx ae  c opoa. acopeoc paoe ac aca cocae 8 %.
   e cooe cpoee ee o ac 1.  eo papee acaec o 15 ox ae p oe ooc aca 4,5  5,4 .  ace eo eec  paoa ac aca, ooc 1,5  2,0 ,  oce ooc 1,5  1,93 . Paoa ac aca coep 1  2, pee oee ecox,  aco ac o (o 0,05 ) poco apa. poe acope paoe ac aca   4%.
   epx ac aca, oe ooc 3,0  3,5 , oeea o e pocoe apa, coo apa, pee ooo  ooc 0,1  0,5 . Oa coea,  pao, cooo aa ,   poco apa  coo apa  ooc o ecox caepo o 0,5 . ooc epxe ac aca peae 40 %.
   epopaec coca e apaaco c   .  apaaco paoe po ecx  oecx oocax e, pecaex cea peo-apeo, copo apeo  peo-apeo, epx o pape aeo oaec. a ce oe coepa  c c eee oeco cop pea coepae ax ooeo oe opacae epx o pape c o 50-60 o 70-85%.  
    acax e p ae po pa oaoe  aoe paoc, o pocppe cooece ceao  ceeo apeo-pe  pe, a ae eo-ceoo pe. oece oocae , pecaee cea peo-apeo, copo apeo  peo-apeo, pcc  eaeo oece, xo x po oaec c a a ceep.  pcc  e ac aco. Peoe peoaae aox  oaox oocax paoce opeeo oee coepae (o 30-40%) oox ooeo  cooeceo eooe oeco ax ooeo (50-60%). cee coca ac 2    co aca 1 a poeo  aco acax apaoo paoa,  oeco oox ooeo caec o 20-25%, a ax oaec o 70-75%.
   oaoc e cpee p aco ee, e e, o  eo ocaec ooo coo. p o  oce aco cpee p apaacoo  pa-pcoo paoo oa caec  o apae.[8]
   oaoc e aca 7  eo o acce  cpee eec o 20 o 25%, pe  apaaco paoe oa ecoo caec  o apae, a  pa pco   ceep. oaoc oo acc oex ace ooo aca 7 a pax acax eoaoa. a,  pa pco paoe  a ceepo-ocoe apaacoo  eo co oee oe (15-30%), e epxeo (10-25%). a Capaco ace apaacoo paoa ecoo oeo oaoc (15-25%) oaa  epxeo co,  o pe  ooc e eo co cocae 15-20%. oapa ooc eaec eaeo (a 1-3%) o cpae c oaoc oo acc, o ocoeo ooceo oc cpoee aca. o aca 7 oaec a poeo ace c oapo ooc 23-30%, a a Capaco ace -23%.[9]
    aca 10  o cpae c p aca apaaco c xapaepec ecoo ee ooc.  apaaco paoe oa opacae c ceepo-ocoa a o-aa  cpee o 16-20% o 22-23% a Aaacco  aco acax. aoopo,   pa pco paoe, ooc  aooepo caec    cpee o 24% o 18% , o  cao e pao peo opacae o 35%. pe ooc e (25%)  eeco  paoe ocaec cao a ce eo oa. 
    ox aco cpee p o cpae c  x aco oaa e ooaoc. a , ooaoc e aca 7  eec o cpee o peao po. a ceepo-ocoe apaacoo paoa  e cpe ooaoc (xo oepaa 70-80%, p ooc 5-8%). a aae poeoo aca ooaoc caoc po  peao po, pe     ,  e epxeo co aca ec oa e. oaoc aec  aa a capaco ace: xo oepaa  e aca  eo cocae 60-75% , p  eo ooc 6-9%. 
    peeax apaacoo paoa oaoc aca 10 pa. pe xo oepaa a ceepe apaacoo paoa cocae 60-65%, a a e -55-60%. ooc eo cocae 6-12%.  eo co ooaac e, e epxeo.  a xo oepaa 70-80%. 
   a pax acax accea oaoc e aca 12 eoaoa.  epxeo co aca  apaacoo paoe xapaepc peao po ooaoc.  peeax epaoo aca pa pco paoa, a ae aca  eo a o ace, e xo oepaa peo peae 40%, a eo ooc oeec o 9 o 18%. [9] 
   
   

   4    
   
               ,  ,                (  ,    )                 ,    .   -       ,                    ,     .
         ,    2-      ,           .    ( )      ,     .    ,      ,   -     ,       .
                  ,  .         ,    ,     ,          ,   .             .          . 
    ,         , , ,        ,    .    ,            . ,               , ,    ,   .[4]
        ,   ,   ,         .        -   .          ,     .            .       ,            .         .
        -          -      -  .          .
            -     ( -   ),         170-180 . , -,   -    (    ,   ,   )    ,         130-135 .
     -       ,         ,     -  ,       .
        -          .                 -        .  ,             ,     ,       .               - . [4]
          ;   -   ,     .      ,    .
        ,         ,    .            ,      .         ;        .
          .          -   . -        .   -  ,   ,        .     (     )   -  .
          ,      ,         .             ,         ,          . ,            .  ,  ,        ,   .     ,               .   ,     ,      . ,      ,    ,   -   ,        .         (  ).         .         .
    , -        ,         ,            .       ,     .        ,               .     , ,    ,              .   2-   ,   . . ( 1954)  . . ( 1954),       -  .
               ,      ,       .        -  -.
              ,            -               2-.        ,        ,    , ,  ,   -   .     ,    ,     -   ,         .             . ,  -  ,          ,      ,         ,      ( , -, ).    (   ),          ,       . ,    -   (       7,       12),  ,         .            ,             . [3]
            , -,  .                        .                    .      ,         ,       ,            .
           ,      ,      ,      .    , , .     .
               .  , , ,    ,        ,          ,            .       ,       ,    .           .
          ,    ,        .              ,   .         ,             .
                .  ,   ,            .    ,                .            4-( )   ,      ,   ( 1-4),      ,  2-     ,      . [1]
       (    )      ,       ,     .    ,    ,       .       ,         .     ,   ,        ,  (         )                  ,           .
        ,             : -     -    . (   )        (    )      ,     .
                  ,     .             ,            c. ,            ,    ,    .         ,    ,    ,     . [5]
                               .     ,              ,       .    ,     ,           ,       .           .           .  ,   ,   ,  ,      .
          ,      ,   ,          ,       ,   ,   ,    (       )                 , ,    .
    ,     - ,     , ,   .   , , ,   ,  ,  ,     ,       .
      -    ,           . 
    2-        ,     .         -    .           .  ,        ,       .                ;  -    .            .    ,        :    ,  .         .           .
         ,         ,       - .              ,                .   -     ,         .           ,     ,     .
              ,     .           .        .       ,       ,       .          ,         .         ,     -        .           .        ,      . [5]
            - ,         .
                  .   ,      ,                  ,          .
               ,           , , ,    .
         ,             ,     (   . ).    -      -(  ).        .      ,     .   ,   , , -,         .       .      ,     .           ,       ,   ,             .        .
     ,       ,    ,        .  ,      ,    ,           - .
           ,          ,   . [6]
           ,           .     ,     -   .       ,         .
             ,        ,   , -,           ,        .      - ,   .
               ,        ,    ,    , "  "      .
        .
    ,                    (     )  (    ) .
          ;          . [5]
   

   5 o opo po eocx aco cpee oc apaaco c
              
   5.1 Aepo  ap
   
    oep a oece aepo  ap c opoao  oo cococ, opaoao oe o (o 2 ) pocoa eoepcx ecao.
   a oo xopoo epa a oa.   oocc   ce ap, a ae ap  aepo.
   Ap  aepo eo-cepoo, o epoo ea. e ocoe ae ooo oeca oxc pacex ocao. opo, a pao, ecoce, o oa  x aaec eca opoaa  oa cococ, opaoaa  peae coe paceoo epa a ococx aacoa  a ce ee paoepecoo cocaa ocao. Aepo coco  eoaax epe apa, oeoo aa, cx o  poc. ee c, oa co-cc.
   ce ap coco  ooeaoo aoa  coo aepaa.
   Aepo xapaepc ooopa epaoec cocao ooooo aepaa.  eea  aepoax peeceo aa, eca oaoo-opo. Coca eo apoao-c.  aepoo eoepcx xapaepa coca ecpa, a  poepcx  ecococa. 
   Aepo o coca e oac o cpeeepcx oox ecao. pea  e oex   ox (10  15c) axc pocoe  x cpeac eoce eca  aepo. ooa ooo  ecaax aeea apoao; paec occ oo x opo.
   
   5.2  eca
          
    papee cpee oc (o aca 6  o 15) peeceo pa aae a, c oe aee oox.  caax oc opoax peoaa eca (55%)  aepo; ap coca e oee 15%. 
   eca o paoepeco coca paec a oo- eo- cpee-  poepce c a ooepaox aea o co. epa coca x ooopa. Ocoa ac pecaea pec opoa, o c  cpe a. Xapaep  ecao ec apoao-c ee. C ee eca oee eaopoa  oe.
   Oeo epo cpee oc ec peoe peoaae eeoao-cepx  cepx cpee-  eoepcx oox ecao, opax a  ecoo eco epo.
   peoaae opoaa  oca cococ ocao  coea c oxo ocoppoa  oaa aepao. ooe opo, poo pacpocpaee  cpee oce, xapaep aae a. oeoe aee e oepe a  a oo.
   Cpe aax a paa a pex pce  o.
   ao pacpocpaee  cpee oce oc a pex pce, pecaee ecaa paoo paoepecoo cocaa (o poepcx o eoepcx), peoaa cpeeepce paoc. eca ooe, cpe ooo peoaa  coo  cpeeo cocaa, ap, oee a, oo cx opo  pee oo eco; poo pacpocpae poc  xop. Ooo aepa oaec oxo coppoo epe  cao x oaaoc.  ecao xapaepa pepco-opoaa, oca  oca cococ, ocoea ae paceoo epa o acoe. oa cococ  ecaax occe. Cpe ecao cpeac eoe  paeo c oe ooopa cocao ooo, oope pecae aepoa, apa   pao cee oaaoc. Ooo x opo e cpeeo.
   oee oca eco ca c pco  pecae eoepc ecaa c o poco aepoa. Cococ  ecaax ea, oca, ooapaea, ocoea coee paceoo epa. Aepo, a pao, ecoce. oee oca e eooe pacpocpaee a oa  oo cec a o pocpa, a  epx o pape pco ecaa.
   ee epopaecoo cocaa opo apaaco c oaao, o poepce eca, xapaepe  ocoo  cpee oc, o coca ooe. Cppa x caoa, pee ceocaoa. Ocoppoaoc epe oxa, opa x oaa, pee ooaaa. acec aepa  ocoo pecae ooa cx, cco-cx, pecx  cco-pecx opo, pee cpeac oo x opo, apa  aoaa. ee opo, copocoe, o coca c  co-cc.
   Cpeeepce eca, oo opaee  cep e pao ecoc, oaa oopoo acco ecpo. Pee cpeac eca cepoao-eeoo  eeoo ea. Paa opaco ocoea pa  cocae ooooo aepaa. Cepe eca ooe, eee  oe. ooe eca o oo   poepc ecaa, ecoo oac o x cppo  cocao eea. ee o cppe aa, oe op  copocoe, o coca c, peco-c, cco-c, pee apoa  xopo. Cpe ox ecao ec eeoao-cepe  eee paoc. epe xapaepc oxo coppoo oax ooo, oope pecae a opao a   ee epe c  pec opoa. cpeaec c aepa  ee oo ceppoax apoao. Cpe ooo epao aaec ap  aoa. ee  ocoo eo, o coca xopo, pee apoa  c. eee oe eca oac o eocax oee co coepae ooo o  ae aoaa. Oo px opo cpeac pae peo. oe eca cpeac oo  papee cpee oc.
   eoepce eca o cpeeepcx oac  ocoo e paepo ooo,  cocae oopx ecoo eaec oeco apa  oeoo aa c cooece eee ca ooo cx  pecx opo; eaec  x coepae coo aepaa, e paea cococ.
   

   6 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po eocx aco    10,  12 cpee oc apaaco c
        
   ccee aco axoc a o-aae axoo o.   cocae ap xapaepa aepaoo pacpeee po aco 7,  10,  12  cooa coep aco   10,  12   opa o opoa po, aeax  poe ooo aca  10,  12 ,  ee  peae paeox pao caa  2290, 8858, 8878, 8896, 11393.
   oe ax ocoeo pe p paoa  ee ec ex cpoco e aco a pae o. oo axoe oe oeeo a p eoecx oa, a ap pacpeee opo po ox aco  10,  12  cocae  epaoo eoecoo oa. 
   op, paoae a axe e . eaea ca, o ap c oo poe, a eca ocoo poe, oo  cceeo paoe  ep  x coepa coxpae.
     cocae ap pacpeee aco  10,  12   pa o eoec o e opaoao ac axoo o ax e . eaea.  aaa pa ooc po ox aco   10,  12    paepe ecpao ooc ooo aca.      
   eae oe ac opo paoopa. ooec coca opo o poepcx ecao o ooepcx opo  - aepoo  apo. Ap aa oeoe ooee  ppoe oo  poe  ox aco. Pacpeeee ooecx paoce opo o cpapaec opoa epaoepoe. 
    papee ox aco  10,  12 pa aae a, c oe aee oox. ac e cooe cpoee, capa cpe ooc x ocae 9,96 .   
   Xapaep ee pea eaoe  eoecx co opee xapaep pacpeee opo po ox aco  10,  12 , o e oaao e. 
   
   6.1 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po ooo aca 10  cpee oc apaaco c
    
   po aca 10 oepea pa a eaeo oa, e  eocpeceo a ac aeae o co pooo ecaa (ooc 18,75 ), oop  pecaea ocoa po. Cpeeepce eca, oo opaee  cep e pao ecoc, oaa oopoo acco ecpo ( 1). Pee cpeac eca cepoao-eeoo  eeoo ea. Paa opaco ocoea pa  cocae ooooo aepaa. Cepe eca ooe, eee  oe. ooe eca o oo   poepc ecaa, ecoo oac o x cppo  cocao eea. ee o cppe aa, oe op  copocoe, o coca c, peco-c, cco-c, pee apoa  xopo. ooc ecao eec, eac c ocoa a   o-aa. Cpe ooc co ecao cocae 11,53 .             
   a ocoo ac oa, e apoo pao, po aca, a paa pecaea apa, ooc o 5,45 , paec ec oo poe, oceeo aeac  ceepo-aao apaee ecaa. ooc o eec epaoepo  o 0,20  o 10,90    c aaa a ceepo-oco. Ap eo-cepoo ea, ecoce. eppea pooc o  caa, ooc  ao cae cocae: 2290 - 0,20 , 8858 - 2,60 ,  8878  10,90 , 8896- 6,55 , 11393- 1,10 . Cpe ooc co cocae 5,45  .
    poe 10 aepo   2290 occ, xo o acceco cxee o o oc cpa oce apo, a eocpeceo poe aepo aee coe ecao.      :   8858  6,20 ,  8878  5,30 , 8896- 4,25 , 11393- 14,75 . Cpe ooc co cocae 7,63 .
    epao eoeco oe ooc ooo aca 10  eec c 3,69  o 4,78 , aae eac c ocoa a aa,  paoe ca  2290 (ooc aca 3,69 )   8858 (ooc aca 4,45 )  pao ca  8878 (ooc aca 4,78 ), 8896 (ooc aca 4,16 ), 11393 (ooc aca 4,50 ). a o-aae axoo o ax e . eaea cpe ooc aca 10  epao eoeco oe cocae 4,31 . 
        
   6.2 Xapaep pacpeee oo opo po ooo aca 12  cpee oc apaaco c
     
    ceepo  o-aao ac axoo o eaoee pocxoo  aopx cox, a  oe e   2.  oco  o-oco co  eaoe apaec -opee  ocaoaoee e c pao copoc  c c  aaac co apa.  
   a ocoo ac e apoo pao oa a o aco aeae co apa oceeo aeac  epao ac aeoo axoo o epecaae apo c aepoa. ae aeae co ecao, ooc ce 19 , oop  pecaea ocoa po. Ap eo-cepoo, o epoo ea. e ocoe ae ooo oeca oxc pacex ocao. opo, a pao, ecoce, o oa  x aaec eca opoaa  oa cococ, opaoaa  peae coe paceoo epa a ococx aacoa  a ce ee paoepecoo cocaa ocao. ce ap coco  ooeaoo aoa  coo aepaa.
    epao eoeco oe a o, e caao e  eocpeceo poe ooo aca 12  ec o co apo o  3,30  o 10,65 . ooc co eaec c aaa a oco,  paoe ca 8858 (3,30 ), 11393 (3,75 )  pao ca 8878 (10,65 ). ooc apo  caax cocae: 2290  5,95 , 8858  3,30 ,  8878  10,65 , 8896- 6,74 , 11393- 3,75 .     Cpe ooc co 6,46 . epo pooc o  caa,  a a ocae ca, o oop ec opa axoc a peea papoo ape, oo xapaep pacpeee opo po o  e paccapaec. 
   a apa pacooe o co ecao. ooc ecao eec c ceepa-ocoa a o-aa,  paoe ca 11393 (23,25 ). ooc x eaec c 18,80  o 23,5 . ooc ecao  caax cocae: 2290  20,88 , 8858  20,88 ,  8878  18,80 , 8896- 29,30 , 11393- 23,25 . Cpe ooc co ecao cocae 14,45 .        
   Cpe ox aco cpee oc apaaco c ac 12  ec ca o. ooc eo eec c 7,35  o 9,90 , eaec c a a ceep, .e. co pea eaoe eec  coce pepaec, oo o aee apa  c apa. ooc ooo aca  caax cocae: 2290  7,35 , 8858  9,9 ,  8878  8,20 , 8896- 8,25 , 11393- 9,70 .  a o-aae axoo o ax e . eaea cpe ooc aca 12  epao eoeco oe cocae 8,68 .
   e aax  opo,  o ac ooe cceeo oa ( paoe ca 2290) aea (. 3) aepo   3,60 , aeac a ocao oa ecaa.
   Xapaep oaoo pacpocpae opo po aca  10 e oxo a aoo ac  7.  ec  , o eocpeceo a aco aea ap o oe epa o 3,6  ooc, oope e o pape cec ecaa. ooc ocex c ceepo  ocoo ace cceeo oa  epao, o  o-aao ac eaec o 12,5 - 16,0 . 
   e o pape, e aooepoo epexoa epe aepo, aeae oa oa ecaa. 
    coocae oaoo pacpocpae opo po aco       10,  12  o, o eoece  aeoeopaece co opo peo ec, o opaoc a xapaepe aea  cee opo po ox aco. 
   acceca, aooepa ceeoc opo po ox aco: ap  aepo  eca,  poe  ooo  paccapaex ox aco e poac. 
   Pa pe eaoe opee pa xapaep aepaoo   epaoo pacpeee opo po aex ox aco, oo p papaoe ax aco o  opee pee o exoo pae poe  cax c  acx aa.      
   

   aee  
       
           po papaaaex ox aco 10  12 ax e . eaea.           10  12,    10  12.       auto cad 2010.
    ( )    papaaaex ox aco 10  12   5    ,    ,  : 2290, 8858, 8878, 8896, 11393.
         ,    ,  ,     . ,               ,        .
     10  12  ,   ,     :
-     10   ;
-      12   ;
-      10     12       .
                ,         .
       ,         8858, 8878     2  7, 2.,    8896,   ,    14, 2.,       10   12.
    ,          .
        ,  ,  ,      ,   .
         10        ,      ,  ,       .
             10    . .      , :
   -              .              .
   - ,      ,         .
   -           ,     . 
     ,   -   ,       .
   -              10  12,    19-22.,   - 8-12.
                                 .
   

     
   
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  2.        .    (   1  1973.).  1 (). , 1973
  3. .. .    . 2-   . ., , 1948
  4. .. , .. .       .  5. .: , 1973
  5. .. .   .    .  1. -, 1956
  6. .. .   .    .  2. -, 1956
  7. .. .       : -  -       , 1962
  8.            .      ,     ., 1967 
  9.            .         -   ., 1967 
  10. .. .       . .  . , . 5(50), 1949
  11. .. .     . .  . , . 8(63), 1950 
  12.    ,          -      . , 2004.
  13. .. .      .   . , . 2, .-., 1936
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  15.   ..,  ..,  ..           ( ).  : , 1969  106-116.
  16.   ..      . : ,1984.
  17.             . ,     15.04.2002.
  18.   ..     .  :  -       , 1962.  188-192.
  19.   ..          . .     , . ., - .,1954.
  20.   ..          .     , . ., - .,1955.
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  33.             .     - .
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  36.     .  . ..   .. . - .: , 1975.
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  42.  . .   , -., , .2 (1969), .3 (1976),  4 (1982), 
  43.  . .,  . .  , --, 1980


























 1

  10





 2
  12










 3
. 2290









 4
. 8858

 5
. 8878




 6
. 8896

 7
. 11393




57


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